drugs/devices to eliminate conception

Contraception devices/drugs to block/eliminate the Gift of Life-thwart Conception

"I am the LORD, who made all things" (Isaiah 44:24)
"Thou...knit me together...Thou hast granted me life" (Job 10:11)

General Concepts:

Contraception defines as contra-against, inception-the beginning; against the beginning. There is nothing more intimate between a man and a woman than when they give totally of themselves as husband and wife, uniting in one flesh to co-create a new human being, a child. Their conjugal union has a unitive and procreative aspect. We come together from a deep natural desire to procreate as well as the need to deepen our companionship. These are intimately entwined in the conjugal act. “A man…clings to his wife, and the two of them become one body”. (Gen 2:24) The depth of the effects this conjugal union invokes is evidenced in immediate as well as long lasting psychological and hormonal changes that occur in both the male and female. Studies have connected these hormonal changes with emotional changes and changes in human behavior. [cs38] [cs59] These hormonal, emotional, and human behavioral influences often result in predictable good and bad human health issues as this page will document.

Man and woman unite in the conjugal act to produce a unique human at fertilization which generally occurs within 20 minutes of sexual activity, as soon as the man’s sperm joins with the woman’s egg. That human offspring can be defined as: the product of human reproduction, a human conceptus, an early human embryo, a human fetus (Latin for “baby”); and yes, a new human being. This human embryo’s development is programmed at fertilization from day one. (link) At day 8-14 implantation of that embryo onto the wall of the uterus occurs, and 1 week later at day 21 there is a heartbeat. From our very beginning at fertilization we are not just a "lump of tissue”.

The psychological and hormonal changes brought about by normal female cycling, pregnancy, and male and female sexual activity help explain the reasons for many of the problems caused by contraception. The unnatural levels of hormones ingested and taken up systemically by such contraceptives as the birth control pill, morning after pill, DepoProvera and the contraceptive patch make it easy to understand their toxic and unnatural effects on the body’s otherwise normal natural functioning. The blocking of any of the pro-creative aspects of the conjugal act either by hormones, by physical agents, or actions prohibits a true totality of the conjugal union which we are aware of in the very depths of our being. When elimination of an embryo occurs even seconds after fertilization it kills a new unique human being. Contraception adversely affects our relationship as man and woman, husband and wife.

This webpage will highlight a wide range of information on contraception that is not often presented. Those who make their living from contraception often withhold the full truth as some of the stark facts may make their patients understandably reluctant to use some of these harmful contraceptive methods. The following will cover some of contraception’s spiritual/ethical aspects, some of its history, how it legally came into being, concepts of natural sexual health and causes for sexual illness, contraceptive statistics, its methods and resultant illness, and conclude with a summation of the important issues. Hopefully it will be made very clear along the way how extreme the deviations from normal become as we move away from natural functioning to unnatural contraceptive methods. In the guise of freedom women have been sold a bill of goods that includes acceptance of almost all of the responsibility of regulation of births and pregnancy spacing with the resultant illness, social consequences, legal problems, heartache, mental health issues, and spiritual harm of contraception. Yes, men are harmed too, as is the man-woman relationship. Hopefully, the facts presented on this webpage will cause you to think more deeply about, or better yet pray more deeply about, the truth of contraception’s deleterious effects on us all and on our world.

Religious/Historical/Legal Aspects:

God blessed them, saying: “Be fertile and multiply; fill the earth and subdue it.”(Gen 1:28) The Bible most often discusses the inability to conceive as a problem as opposed to attempts not to conceive. Abraham and Sarah (Gen 17:17,19), Isaac and Rebekah (Gen 25:21), and Zechariah and Elizabeth (Luke:1:7,13). The mysterious life force, the gift of life, comes only from our Creator. The Bible states, “Lord God…blew into his nostrils…so man became a living being” and “God created man in his image”.(Gen 2:7; Gen 1:27) Man has never made one thing come alive. Sin is as old as Adam and Eve. It is simply the lack of love for God, our neighbor, or one’s self. It is interesting that right after Jesus talks about marriage and the sin of adultery he mentions children, “Let the children come to me; do not prevent them”. (Mark 10:14) Despite the opposition to birth control seen in the Bible and that held by all Christian religions and many other religions until the early 1900s, people often refuse to listen to their own faith traditions, but instead proceed by their own desires instead of God’s will for them.

One of the oldest contraceptive methods documented in the Bible was coitus interuptus. Poor Onan, struck dead by God for spilling his seed on the ground.(Gen 38:9-10) There are innumerable Bible passages concerning disordered sexual activity. There are 4 passages that use the Greek word pharinak or pharmakeia referring to drugs that most bible scholars believe refer to birth control mixtures as the same word is used in the first century in relationship to agents used to prevent or end pregnancies. Pharmakeia is paired up in these 4 passages with other sexual sins such as unchastity, licentiousness, orgies etc. Christians should take note that in 3 of the 4 passages there is Hell to pay for these sins and I quote “those who do such things will not inherit the kingdom of God”(Gal 5,19-21), “their lot is in the burning pool of fire and sulfur, which is the second death”(Rv 21,8), and “outside (the heavenly city) are the dogs, the sorcerers.”(Rv 22,15) [cg14] (link)

Contraception has become so commonplace that it often seems its only moral opponent is the Catholic Church. However, many in the Protestant faiths are beginning to again see its problems as they did before the 1900s. At that time ALL of Christendom was opposed to birth control, a point Charles Provan, a Protestant, makes in his book The Bible and Birth Control. [rs40] [cg32] He says on page 63: “Calvin thought that Birth Control was Murder”; “Luther viewed it as sodomy”; and “we have found not one orthodox theologian to defend Birth Control before the 1900’s. NOT ONE!” It was a young Protestant reformer that pushed for and helped successfully get passed into law the Comstock Act of 1873 which forbade the manufacture, distribution, sales, or possession of contraceptives and contraceptive information in the USA. The Anglican Church in 1930 at its Lambreth Conference opened the door to the acceptance of contraception when it confusingly declared that, “Where there is a clearly felt moral obligation to limit or avoid parenthood…The primary and obvious method is complete abstinence from intercourse…the Conference agrees that other methods may be used, provided that this is done in the light of…Christian principles”. [cs1-page4] At the Lambreth Conference of 1930 Anglican Bishop Charles Gore warned his fellow bishops that the acceptance of contraception was the opening of a Pandora’s box full of sexual and social evils including homosexual practices”. [cs1-page38] The secular Washington Post ran an editorial the next day saying, “Carried to its logical conclusion, the committee’s report, if carried into effect, would send a death-knoll of marriage as a holy institution by establishing degrading practices which would encourage indiscriminate immorality. The suggestion that the use of legalized contraceptives would be 'careful and restrained' is preposterous.” [cs1-page5] Are we there yet?

Medical scrolls describing contraceptive methods are in existence from 2700 B.C. in China and from 1850 B.C. in Egypt. Some of the agents that were inserted in the vagina included; oiled silk paper, sponges, gums, leaves, beeswax, or opium melted into disks. Ancient Greeks used a fennel plant called silphium which was imported into ancient Rome in such an amount that it became extinct. [cg14] Chemical Contraceptive methods have been used from ancient times and include such plants/drugs as pennyroyal, ergot, wild carrot, slippery elm, saffron, silphium (extinct or perhaps was a combination drug), eucalyptus, etc. None of these are necessarily safe or effective. They are the same agents used to try and induce abortions. They are thus abortifacients. [ag82] (link) Various objects were placed up in the womb to prevent pregnancy including pieces of metal and pebbles. We don’t put pebbles up in our wombs anymore like primitive man, we are civilized. We use sterilized plastic. The origin of the word "condom" is not known, but has been stated to refer to a Dr. Condom, physician for Charles the 2nd of France who provided him with the means to avoid illegitimate children. We can tie and burn women's fallopian tubes or men’s tubes (vases); we can give women hormonal agents by injection, on a device placed vaginally, by a patch on the skin, in plastic capsules pushed under the skin, or by pills taken post sexual activity. Not far from primitive man we still have coitus interuptus-the spilling of men’s seed.

Architect William Sanger, Margaret Sanger’s husband, successfully fought a charge of violating the Comstock Act for disseminating contraceptive information in 1915. It was held that contraceptive devices could be sold for the “cure and prevention of disease”. This is why until contraceptives became legal in the early 1960s condoms had to carry a label saying “for disease prevention only”. [cg7] The Sangers pressed further and won another court case in 1932 for the import of birth control devices. The court held that the federal government could not interfere with doctors providing contraception to their patients. The remnants of the Comstock Act of 1973’s law still tenuously stand against the mailing of obscene materials despite challenges by the ACLU (www) and others. For now it gives the legal establishment a window into and protection against child sex and pornography. Women may find it curiously interesting that there were trials originally with both male and female birth control pills. In the initial female studies 17% of the women had persistent severe nausea and vomiting and 3 died. This was considered acceptable without further investigation recommended. In the men’s study one male had slight testicular shrinkage and the study was immediately and permanently halted! [cg1]

Ethical/Social Aspects:

The most profound of many problems with contraceptive agents is that many are abortifacients; agents that cause abortion which include methods erroneously thought by some to have only contraception properties, i.e. birth control pills work this way at times, the morning after pill, Norplant, Depo-Provera, and IUDs. Estimates range from three to ten million aborted embryos that occur yearly in this country with the use of abortifacients. [ag82] (link) Early in the history of the IUD it was noted it did not act to prevent pregnancy/fertilization but instead inhibited implantation; it prevented the embryo from attaching to the uterine wall, causing it to be eliminated (aborted) and killed. Women were concerned about how it worked and felt like it caused an abortion, which it does. So, the American College of OBGYN (ACOG) changed the definition of pregnancy. All embryology textbooks have historically defined a pregnancy as beginning at the time of fertilization (link). After contraception was legalized ACOG changed the definition of the onset of pregnancy to the time of implantation. [ag8-Part4] This was the first of many lies to get contraception socially accepted and abortion legalized. Changing definitions does not change the facts that at fertilization a unique new human being comes into existence.

Contraceptive failure is the number one reason women give for wanting an abortion. [ag73] [cg3] [cg6] [cg11] [cg31] In the Planned Parenthood v. Casey decision (link) it states that there needs to be, “reliance on the availability of abortion in the event that contraception should fail.”[ag77] Planned Parenthood’s perpetual response is that we just need more contraception as well as more sex education. However, 58% of abortions were for contraceptive failure in the mid 1990’s and 54% in 2010 with the rest of the women stating they had used contraception in the past. [ag73] [cg1] Nearly 100% of women know about contraception. Our children are routinely assaulted with sex and contraception information in our public schools. Condom use has an 18-36% failure rate PER YEAR as shown in a number of studies. [cg33] Are parents going to abdicate moral teaching for their children to others? Have you looked around at the dangers in the world for them? Have you seen who it is that is trying to teach them a new ethics and what it is they are being taught? Wake up, get active, and protect your children, parents!

I had a woman in my medical practice with two daughters, 13 and 16 years old, both of whom I had helped deliver. She wanted contraception for them both. We discussed the sexual and contraception health problems that I further discuss below on this page. I could not help but think she would certainly grab their arms should they try and dash across a busy street. Teen sexual activity can be equally harmful and also includes spiritual harm. She fired me when I refused to comply with her wishes. She had unfortunately not received the letter I sent to all my patients on this issue. (link) It is mistakenly held that sexual freedom occurs with contraception and is a liberating right for women. In reality it is an imprisonment for women that opens them up to abuse by men and an enslavement to divorce, poverty, out of wedlock children, physical/sexual abuse, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), abortion, illness from contraceptives, and unplanned pregnancies. Unplanned pregnancies are the only natural and normal result from sexual activity out of all of these (see information below also). (link) [cg1] [cg8] [cs37] [cs48]

It is a true paradox that modern health and politically conscious women often seek organic foods at a higher price, campaign and organize for a clean environment, politically demand the same autonomous rights as men have, and have the unique ability to both create and internally nurture new human life. Yet, these same women acquiesce to being the partner that takes the toxic medications, uses the harmful techniques, and assumes most of the harmful consequences of birth control? Birth control pills totally override a woman’s natural and normal hormonal functioning, pollute the environment to the extreme of causing hermaphroditic fish in the rivers [ci50], and have major detrimental health care consequences as will be shown below. Women have demanded not to be sex objects but with the advent of readily available contraception have opened themselves up for sex on demand. Some churches have been unjustly criticized as appearing to portray sex as dirty. In reality most of these churches have preached the true beauty and exaltedness of the sexual/conjugal union. It is our culture that often reduces sex to the gutter level and in the process disrespects women as well as men. The result is a reduction in the dignity of all life especially God’s divine gift of life-human life. Contraception has helped grease yet another one of the slippery slopes of deteriorating cultural morality as well as degrading our human dignity.

Sexual Health-Normal Functioning:
(Abstinence) (NFP)

Normal monthly ovulation fertility cycles in a woman are natural and they make her feel healthy. Women and men have complex hormonal functioning in the normal state which impacts their general feeling of well-being. Women, and the men married to them, know very well the normal cyclical physical and emotional changes that take place on a monthly basis with the natural fertility cycle (menstrual cycle). It is designed to prepare for the possibility of creating and supporting new life. Within 1-14 hours of sexual activity an early embryo can form, a conceptus, a new unique human life. That child and each child thereafter reduce a woman’s risk of breast, ovarian, uterine, and colorectal cancer. [ci35] [ci59] [ci60] ALL hormonal contraceptive agents totally change a woman’s normal natural hormonal pattern that can affect her health as well as her feeling of well being

A number of hormones can also be measured that increase or decrease with sexual activity which can further be pegged to changes in behavior and human action. Similar changes have been shown in other animals. However, humans are a considerable step above lower animals with an intellect and conscience that helps allow them to say yes or no to sexual activity. The decisions we make in this regard significantly affect our lives for the better or worse. The most important of these hormones so far that is connected to sexual activity are oxytocin and vasopressin. Oxytocin is released in the human brain during; 1. labor and delivery, 2. breast-feeding, and 3. sexual arousal-rising three fold with male sexual climax. Vasopressin is released with sexual activity in males and promotes pair-bonding, parental tendencies, and a protective urge (jealousy and territorial). [cs38] [cs59] Fatherhood induces hormonal changes in men that may help explain their resultant “better health, drinking less, and lower substance usage.” [cs43] Oxytocin and Vasopressin are considered the “bonding” hormones. Oxytocin levels are heightened by pleasant relationship experiences and reduced by anxiety and negative memories such as from bad relationship experiences. Numerous bad experience memories can permanently reduce oxytocin levels and the desire for long term bonding. The studies cited above have shown some fascinating findings that help us understand and explain the reasons for some of our pathological human behavior caused by erratic sexual activity and some of the negative effects brought about by contraception.

Then there is the story of Austin, the dominant male monkey on an island with nine females. He mated repeatedly with his three favorite females. Two were given DepoProvera and he lost interest in them and replaced them with two other females. When the DepoProvera wore off in three months he returned to them. All nine females were injected with DepoProvera and he began to “rape, masturbate, and behave in a turbulent and confused manner”. [cs58] [cg1] Artificial contraceptive hormones (DepoProvera, Birth Control Pills, etc.) put women in a “chemically pregnant” type state which abnormally suppresses ovulation so they cannot get pregnant. They have less sexual libido as they produce less testosterone which is a source of a female’s sex drive. They are in a “chemically pregnant” state not feeling stimulated to seek more sex to get pregnant. These changes may not be reversible on coming off the pill! [ci30] [ci33] [ci35] [ci58] Pregnant females and these “chemically pregnant females do not exude the same pheromones as fertile females, and hence their own libido but also the interest that males exhibit declines.” [cs58] Lionel Tiger reports that pheromones were the likely agents involved in a study which compared desirable men-healthy, aggressive, responsible; to a group of less desirable men-unable to hold a job, less healthy, etc. Non-contracepting women and contracepting women were asked to smell the t-shirts worn by these men all day and choose the best men. The non-contracepting women chose the “desirable men” and the contracepting women chose the less desirable men! [cs58] [cs46] [cg1]

The number one reason for women getting off oral contraceptives is depression. [ci11] [ci24] [ci34] [ci57] [cg1] Other side effects include decreased sex drive/libido, weight gain, and irritability. In “Contraception: Why Not” Dr. Janet Smith ironically points out that women and men surely both want a woman who is fat, depressed, irritable, and with less sex drive! [cg1] Teens regret becoming sexually active with “72% of sexually active girls and 55% of sexually active boys saying they wished they had waited longer”. [cs48] [cs37] The numbers of teens remaining abstinent, virgins, is much higher than implied by the mass media or Planned Parenthood. [cs41] [cs42] [cs44] A government study in 2010 showed 58% of girls and 57% of boys who had never-married had remained virgins. [cs61] [cs40] A big payoff for those waiting for sex beyond high school; completing at least one more year of schooling, incomes 20% higher, and a 50% lower divorce rate than those having sex in or before high school. [cs61] A study comparing those waiting for sex until marriage compared with those who did not wait reported a relationship stability of 22% higher, relationship satisfaction of 20% higher, communication being 12% better, and sexual quality 15% better for those waiting. [cs45] A survey of 100,000 women showed married, church going women, especially those entering marriage with little or no sexual baggage, had the most satisfying sex lives of all women in America.” [cs6]


Chastity/abstinence is 100% effective in STD and unintended pregnancy prevention! As noted above it reduces the drug use, depression, and suicide risk in teenagers, later divorce rates, has higher educational achievement results, and offers better future relationship satisfaction and stability. [cs19] [cs20] [cs48] [cs65] [cs66] Continuing to hold strong religious beliefs helps protect virginity past 18 years old. [cs33] One study showed that men and women who were virgins at age 18 had half the rate of divorce and had annual incomes 20% higher than those who did not. [ca3] The successful reduction in HIV in Uganda by 80% has been attributed totally to their ABC program; abstain (sex) before marriage, be faithful after, condoms rarely/only as absolutely needed. [ca2] [ca6]

“The American College of Pediatricians strongly endorses abstinence-until-marriage sex education and recommends adoption of abstinence education by all school systems in lieu of “comprehensive sex education”.” [ca4] They note in this document that “few sexually active teens”…"remain emotionally unscathed”. They state that children 5 to 8 years old should not be taught “definitions of sexual intercourse and masturbation”. Nor should teens be given comprehensive programs emphasizing safer sex with “sexually erotic material”…”with explicit condom demonstrations” which “break down natural barriers” to “sexual activity and encourage experimentation”. A study that proves their point comes from the New York school districts with a $4000 per student per year comprehensive sex education program, more than was spent on the children’s education, which did not reduce sexual risk taking with the boys in the program MORE likely to become fathers. [cs34]

Planned Parenthood and its representatives claim abstinence does not work. They are dead wrong and many studies show they are wrong. A “Sex Can Wait” program at the University of Arkansas showed students “more likely to remain virgins and to have a commitment to abstinence” than other students. [ca1] An abstinence program in South Carolina showed a reduction from 61/1000 to 25/1000 rate of teen pregnancy within just 5 years in females 14 to 17 years old. [ca7] The “Not Me, Not Now” program in New York reports “intercourse by age 15” numbers dropping from 46.6% to 31.6% and adolescent pregnancy numbers from 63.4% to 45.6%. [ca10] In our nation’s capital, the District of Columbia, there is the highly successful “Best Friends” program. Comparing all students(A) to “Best Friends”(BF) students who had not by the eighth grade smoked, used drugs, drank alcohol, or had sex; not smoked: (A) 38.7% - (BF) 72.8%; not used drugs: (A) 71% - (BF) 92.4%; not drank alcohol: (A) 37.3% - (BF) 65.6%; not had sex: (A) 66.8% - (BF) 91.5%. [ca8] [ca5] [cs34] So why are we undermining our children by allowing sex demonstrations such as condoms on a banana in our schools when our children are telling us they want to wait to have sex? These abstinence programs work and get far less of our tax money than the number one abortion provider and sex educator in the country, Planned Parenthood. Have we lost our common sense? Our children and we are suffering because of what we are allowing them to go through.

Natural Family Planning (NFP) is as it says; a totally natural way of enabling couples to plan families without the use of harmful devices and medications. It has well established medically proven methods for achieving pregnancy in fertile and infertile couples and for the regulation of births, pregnancy spacing. The real truth of NFP’s unintended pregnancy numbers may surprise many as they are as low as if not better than all other reversible methods, i.e. contraception. The use of NFP for achieving pregnancy in infertile women results in pregnancy rates far higher than that able to be obtained by other methods including In-Vitro Fertilization. It avoids the lower than normal pregnancy rates that occur upon discontinuation of contraception. [ci7] In summary, NFP achieves higher rates of pregnancy than any technique in couples desiring children and yet is as effective, if not more so, as any type of contraception available for the spacing of children. [nf7] [nf8] [nf9] [nf10] [nf21]

Sexual Health-Illness:

“You are going to try and scare us with statistics“, you might say. Ok, yes I am, by giving you the truth which can be scary. For sexually active teenagers versus those not sexually active how does a SUICIDE rate for girls nearly 3X higher and for boys nearly 8X (not 8%) higher strike you? [cs48] It was thought that depression leads to risky behavior like sex and drug use, but we now know those connections are reversed. Sexual activity and drug use lead to depression which can lead to suicide. [cs19] [cs20] [cs65] [cs66] Sexual activity is occurring in younger ages and even at school. [cs24] [cs23] [cs25] [cs35] It is encouraged by the mass media [cs36] and by such organizations as the UN with their “Sex Manifesto” for children. [cs30] [cs31] Planned Parenthood, the school system, and the media make it seem young people are eager to have sex. On the contrary many teens feel peer pressure to have sex, [cs28] have been forced into having sex, [cs53] and most of them wished they had waited. [cs48] [cs37] Perhaps we should support them with sex avoidance programs rather than having them assaulted with sex oriented programs.

Gardasil needs mentioned as it has been pushed on us and our children as a vaccine designed to potentially protect women (and men) from the sexual illness of HPV, human papilloma virus. However, it has been shown by studies to offer little to prevent cervical cancer, has resulted in 44 deaths so far in those receiving the vaccine, and there have been 2000 patients with side effects including nausea, dizziness, blurred vision, and convulsions/ seizures. [cs8] [cs9] There is no data that it remains effective beyond five years, or that it is effective in younger girls. Those trials on our young children have not happened and should not as they are unethical. [cs10]

One in four teenage girls has an STD! [cs16] [cs48] There are three million cases of Chlamydia yearly for which 25% of those women will then be sterile. Sterility rises to 50% with the second infection and nearly 100% after the third. [cs37] [cg1-classic] “The major cause of infertility is sexually transmitted illness” which has risen over 600% since 1970. [cg1-revised] [cs15] [cs17] [cs22] [cs26] [cs32] [cs63] [cs64] After all, the 50% of teens with an unplanned pregnancy who have had sex education classes have been shown not to be using protection or contraception. [cs47] Some other statements from a teen survey; “I trusted my partner to pull out“ (44%), "had unprotected sex" (74%), “how often did you use contraception or protection when you had sex?” (43%), and “sex feels better without protection” (39%). [cs29] STD and unplanned pregnancy numbers continue to rise despite our teens knowing about contraception and supposed methods to protect from STDs (unreliable condoms). [cs57]

Planned Parenthood continues to argue for more sex education and contraceptives for our youth as this is how they make a living. However, sex education studies actually show an increased activity with that education. Prior education increases the odds of sexual activity 1.5x, [cs68] and prior exposure to sex education is significantly associated with initiation of sexual activity at ages 15 and 16. [cs51] In three models of sex education tested; in the comprehensive model (full contraception advice) 47% of the children became sexually active, in the biology model (just the facts about sex) 24% became sexually active, and in the no sex education only 28% became sexually active. [cs53] The casual sexual behavior promoted in the USA has lead us to early death and disability numbers triple that in any other country. [cs49] In lieu of the above presented data, the condoms on banana demonstration we allow our children to go through at school should seem a lot less amusing.

Contraception Statistics:

There are over one million abortions yearly in the USA. In March 2014 there were 85 million women in the United States between 10 and 50 years old. Let’s broadly count them in the child bearing-contraception age. This is an overly broad range and number of “women of fertility” and also does not subtract the number of women in this age group unable to have children. Even with this overly broad range it means at the very least one out of every 85 women in the United States has an abortion yearly! Most of these abortions occur as documented above as a result of failed contraception.

Margaret Sanger, the founder of Planned Parenthood, unintentionally revealed years ago the fundamental and inherent problems of contraception in a statement of hers on contraception where she highlighted, “Contraception must be available to sever the undesirable natural connection between sex and procreation, and abortion must be available to clean up what contraception misses.” Contraception's fundamental problems are the desire for an unnatural severing of the natural connection between sex and procreation, the fact that it will always have a failure rate, and that abortion is the natural result of failed contraception. [ag73] [cg3] [cg6] [cg11]

The irony is that contrary to the erroneous thought that with more contraceptive availability and sex education abortion numbers will be reduced it has not proven to be so. Instead contraception’s increased availability has resulted in abortion numbers going up. True headline, “Study: Contraception use up, abortions double,; researchers can’t figure out why.” [cg3] Perhaps use some common sense; the more casual sex one has the greater likelihood there will be of pregnancy, contraception use notwithstanding.” [cg3] Yes, abortion is the natural result of failed contraception and with abortion’s legalization for failed contraception abortion numbers have gone way up, sexually transmitted illness rates have gone way up, and paradoxically contraceptive use rates have gone down. “Liberal abortion laws with wider abortion availability actually encourage more and riskier sexual behavior and discourages people from using contraceptives”. “By lowering the cost of sexual activity, legalized abortion leads individuals to engage in more sex and use condoms less often.” This is shown by the fact that “abortion legalization led to an increase in gonorrhea and syphilis rates…by as much as 25 percent.” [cg11]

So, what are the failure rates of contraception after years of condoms on a banana demonstrations for our youngest of children and the readily available modern devices and chemicals with bowls of condoms just about everywhere? There are failure rates, unintended pregnancy rates, yearly of 29% using spermicides only, 16-32% with the sponge, 16% with the diaphragm, 16% with the cervical cap, and 15% with condoms. These failure rates show even greater percentages in younger ages. There is an 8% failure rate yearly with the patch;i.e.Ortho Evra; vaginal ring;i.e.NuvaRing; mini-pill, and birth control pill. There is a 21% unintended pregnancy rate, contraceptive failure rate, for those women using contraception who are less than 18 years old. [cg6] [cg33] If the predicted failure rate in condoms is just 15% per year that equates to a 56% failure rate in 5 years and 80% in 10 years! We seem surprised that we cannot get the contraception failure rates down in our teenagers but Janet Smith explains the obvious, “teenagers are as good at using contraception as they are at picking up their room.” [cg1-classic]

With the advent of contraception in the early 1960s the arguments for its legality included; its ability to lower the divorce rates, that there would be only wanted children born, and that there would be less spousal abuse, less child abuse, less STDs, and fewer abortions. In 1960, before legal contraception, 3% of white babies and 22% of black babies were born out of wedlock. In 2003 with tons of contraception used and after millions of abortions 24% of white babies and 86% of black babies were born out of wedlock. Child abuse, spousal abuse, STDs, adultery, and divorce have all doubled or tripled. Co-habitation has increased 10 fold. Estimated abortion numbers for the early 1960s were several thousand with an estimate of 25,000 in 1969 [cg1] [cg3] [cg4] [cg8] [cg11] which is a far cry from the over 1 million performed yearly now. The number one reason women give to get an abortion is contraception failure. [ag73] [cg3] [cg6] [cg11] [cg31] All the reasons given for legalizing contraception have failed the test of time.

The present divorce rate is now about 50%. In the 1960s about 25% of marriages ended in divorce but between 1965 to 1975 divorce more than doubled for the first time in human history to 50%. A social scientist/economist then at the University of Stanford named Robert Michael looked at the numbers and showed that divorce numbers linearly increased as contraception legality spread across the United States. [cg1-classic] Contraception’s devastating effects go beyond couples to national concerns. “Before 2050, 80% of the world population will be projected to have below-replacement fertility.” [pc4] The president of the European Commission warned in 2001 that nearly one-third of pension systems in Europe will likely collapse by 2050. Do we need to rethink what we are doing with contracepting ourselves out of existence? Robert Michael has also shown that couples who have one to two babies in the first few years of marriage have the longest marriages and the most stable long term finances. [cg1-revised] What a surprise! Children, rather than condoms, to strengthen marriage, personal finances, and potentially the stability of the world.

Contraception Methods/Illness:
(Hormonal Agents) (Condoms) (Emergency Contraception)
(for method-specific information see separate page-link)

Hormonal Agents-General Information
ALL hormonal contraceptive agents totally change the normal natural female hormonal pattern. Women end up feeling like they are pregnant as that is what the hormones simulate. These women then ovulate sporadically if at all. Hormonal medications used for contraception include ethinyl estradiol and progesterone agents, either progestin or levonorgestrel. They generally have 3 mechanisms of action as noted in the Physician’s Desk Reference (PDR) description for Yaz, “(1) lower the risk of becoming pregnant primarily by suppressing ovulation. Other possible mechanisms may include (2) cervical mucus changes that inhibit sperm penetration and the (3) endometrial changes that reduce the likelihood of implantation”. [rs42-scroll to mechanism of action]Reduce the likelihood of implantation” means that if a woman ovulates a new human embryo can be formed and that new human embryo is then sloughed/killed.

ALL hormonal contraceptive agents work as abortifacients at times. This is from breakthrough ovulation and then sloughing of the new embryo because the medication causes the womb lining to be unreceptive to the embryo-“reduce the likelihood of implantation”. Ovulation occurs 2-10% of the time on combined BCPs, 30-65% of the time on the mini pill (progestin only pills), 45% of the time with the progetin lined IUD (Mirena) after 1 year and 75% after 5 years, and 40-60% of the time with Norplant or DepoProvera. [cg1-revised] [cg8] [ci10] [ci11] [ag82] (link-abortifacient math) This sloughing and killing of new life, a new human being, is the grievous aspect of hormonal contraception and IUDs.

Hormonal agents come as pills (birth control pill-BCP) such as Ortho Novum, Plan B, and Yaz, as injections such as DepoProvera, rings periodically inserted in the vagina such as NuvaRing, patches applied to the skin such as Ortho Evra, and IUDs with the same hormonal type agents coating them such as Mirena. Plan B is recommended only for emergency contraception but women are using it repeatedly as non drug company critics warned would happen. [cg12] From 30-60% of women discontinue hormonal agents for various reasons by one year except for the slightly less 20% discontinuation rate with IUDs. Most of the time discontinuation numbers occur because of the side effects and illnesses caused by these agents/methods which are described below.

Some argue that hormonal agents are beneficial as they can help manage women’s irregular fertility cycles when they are abnormal. While this is true it only occurs by overriding the woman’s cycle with these unnatural hormones used in unnatural amounts. A more precise professional approach is offered by Dr. Hilgers of the Paul VI Institute who has spent his career carefully researching and treating women by correcting their hormonal balance to that of a normal cycle. [nf4] [nf5] [nf6]

There are significant side effects associated with hormonal contraception. The major ones will be grouped here and also with the specific contraception methods on a separate page. (link) The abortifacient [ci6] [ci10] [ci11] [ag82] (link) problem has been mentioned. There are environmental pollution concerns from the large amounts of hormones entering our water system with intersex fish changes already noted. [ci6] [ci50] Dr. Djerassi the developer of the birth control pill and now one of its harshest critics warns of its population devastation effects and male infertility from the above mentioned environmental pollution. [ci6] Fertility reduction numbers in the USA and the world portend large problems ahead [ag82] (link) Sadly, women use contraception until they age themselves past their biological ability to have children. [cs54] They have often used hormonal contraception to be freely sexually active but these medications can permanently reduce the sexual drive [ci58] and result in significant depression reducing their sex drive even more. [ci24] [ci24] [ci57]

Other significant hormonal contraception induced illnesses include the increased risk of spreading herpes to another person, [ci29] [ci61] breast lumps from proliferative breast disease which are felt to be a precursor for breast cancer, [ci25] ischemic stokes (1.9x higher on BCPs), [ci21] and multiple sclerosis. [ci56] While on BCPs there is a 2x higher heart attack rate, stroke risk is tripled with 7x the death rate if a woman smoked in her 20s. There is increased blood clot risk. [ci11] [ci17] [ci18] [ci22] [ci23] [ci32] [ci44] [ci47] Blood clots are especially worrisome for women over 40 years old, obese, smoking, and who have migraines. [ci5] They occur at higher rates from all hormonal agents with the newer progesterone agents being the most risky. [ci43] [ci45] [ci46] Blood clot risk is 5x higher with older progestins and 6-9x with newer ones. The tendency is for women to say, “Yeah, but that will not be me.” I had about a 3000 patient panel and during my 25 years in practice had 2 young women with full strokes caused by the BCP. One woman was in her mid 20s and the other in her mid 30’s. Strokes, heart attacks, and cancer happen to real people and when they do they are occurring in that person at the 100% level.

The most serious consequence of hormonal contraception is cancers shown to be associated with its use! The world health organization declared oral contraceptives a group 1 carcinogen which is the highest classification of carcinogenicity. [ci11] [ci42] Hormonal contraceptive agents are associated with prostate and bladder cancer in male children, [ci31] cervical cancer [ci24] [ci11] [ci14] [ci16] [ci28] with that risk increased to 430% above normal in DepoProvera if used for 5 years. [ci14] Ovarian cancer is increased regardless of route (injection, patch, pill), the formulation, the progestin type, the estrogen dose, or the duration of use! [ci27] Liver cancer was almost unheard of in the 15-40 year old group before oral contraceptives were proven to be associated with its use. [ci11] [ci14] [ci20] The risk of dying from lung cancer is significantly increased for small cell lung cancer if there is any history of oral contraceptive use. [ci26]

Breast cancer is and should be the scariest associated illness with hormonal contraception. Breast cancer is the most common cancer second to skin cancer and is the second leading cause of death from cancer in women. It has been absolutely proven that combination estrogen/progesterone in hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) in postmenopausal women was associated with an increased breast cancer risk. [ci37] [ci51] [ci52] These contained estrogen and progesterone similar to the ones in oral contraceptives. Within the first two years after stopping this treatment regimen a drop in breast cancer incidence could be seen and the decrease continued at a 5% reduction per year. [ci38] There are innumerable studies showing a significant causal link of hormonal contraceptives to breast cancer, [ci2] [ci14] [ci15] [ci16] [ci23] [ci24] [ci36] [ci39] [ci40] [ci41] [ci62] one showing a return to normal risk only after 10 years from stopping the BCP. [ci3] Some specific points in studies show; (1) “Women who started using hormonal contraceptives before age 18 have a 90 percent increased risk of any breast cancer and a 370 percent increased risk for “triple negative” breast cancer, a particularly aggressive form responsible for about 10-17 percent of all cases in the USA. (2) Women who use hormonal contraceptives before their first birth are at 44 percent increased risk of breast cancer. (3) Women who use contraceptives 11 years or longer are at a 210 percent increased risk of breast cancer. For perspective, this same study found smoking, a well known carcinogen, increased breast cancer risk just 25 percent in the same study population.” [ci11] [ci14]

Let us summarize hormonal contraceptive problems; abortion as a mechanism of action, significantly increased blood clot-stroke-heart attack risk, and precancerous proliferative breast disease. The hormonal contraception cancer problems include; BCPs being classified a group 1 carcinogen by the world health organization, prostate and bladder cancer in male children, liver cancer, cervical cancer, ovarian cancer, increased small cell lung cancer death rate, and significantly increased breast cancer numbers. Since there are similar child spacing and pregnancy numbers with totally natural NFP compared to hormonal contraceptive agents and much better fertility numbers with NFP when children are wanted, why would anyone take the risks of hormonal contraception? Totally natural versus totally dangerous; it should be a no brainer.


Oh my goodness, the problems with condoms. The most frequent argument in their defense is that using a condom is better than not using one. Even with religious and ethics objections aside, is that really true? Is it true concerning unplanned pregnancies, STDs, and the stability of the relationship? “The two of them” certainly do not “become one body”, one flesh when they have a piece of rubber inbetween them.(Gen 2:24) Have you talked to folks who use condoms or do you use them? Just physically speaking, is there something missing? Please pardon my crudeness but with no unitive AND no procreative aspect of the sexual act with condoms, the sexual act really amounts to mutual masturbation. This lack of anything close to full totality of union, the conjugal union, is known by the partners physically but they also are quite aware to the very depths of their being that something is missing.

In perfect use ideal laboratory studies the condom has a failure rate of 15% against HIV. If it were Russian roulette every seventh pull of the trigger kills. If the failure rate in condoms is just 15% per year your statistcal chances lead to a 56% failure rate in 5 years and 80% in 10 years! This is for the deadly HIV virus! Its failure rate is much higher in actual use. For syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and herpes the failure rate for even the perfect use ideal laboratory environment is 50% which equates to almost 100% over 5 years of sexual activity. [cg35] A survey showed that in those with known genital herpes infection a condom was used in casual sex only 35% of the time and when the partners had a long-term relationship just 10% of the time. [cg10] Perhaps “Not having Casual Sex is Healthier than Having it” is a safer and wiser slogan than “Using a Condom is Better than Not using one.”

The UN, WHO, and other world authorities admit that one of the few major successes so far in the HIV battle is in Uganda. Uganda’s efforts have reduced the HIV occurrence rates by 50%. They went from 21% to 6% in pregnant women while condom pushing Botswana went up to 38% infectivity rate for their pregnant population. How did Uganda do it? The Harvard study that reported it says, “Much of the program’s success is due to the nation’s willingness to look beyond the sexual revolution and into their past sexual practices before the adoption of corrupt western sexual mores.” [cg27] [cg24] A perfect use 15% condom failure rate per year with HIV virus around wipes out the child bearing population. The millions of condoms sent to Africa are usually at the end of their normal life-span and are often stored in 120 degree temperature warehouses. The Catholic Church and Uganda have both shown that condoms are not the answer to the HIV problem in Africa, or anywhere else for that matter. A program to place condoms machines in India’s Capital met with fierce Muslim resistance. “Don’t ruin our culture. Remove these machines.” the people yelled. [cg25] They, Uganda, and the Catholic Church are religiously, culturally, ethically as well as empirically correct. [cg22] [cg26]

In a study of 158 Indiana University male students: all who had worn a condom once in the last 3 months; 6/10 did discuss condom use with their partner before sex; but 42% did not have one; 43% said they used them but did not put them on until after sex had begun; 15% took it off before finishing; 1 in 3 had them tear or slip off during sex; 1 in 3 lost erections with them on; 4 out of 10 did not leave room at the end causing spillage of semen (sperm); 30% initially put them on inside out; not allowing them to unroll properly, flipping them around later. Jon Knowles of Planned Parenthood replied to the article, “The condom is really a good thing, very effective. You have to use it correctly. Boys don’t ask for directions.” [cg2] The facts do not match his rhetoric. There are innumerable studies and articles that document the problems with condoms. [cg2] [cs5] [cg16] [cg17] [cg18] [cg19] [cg20] [cg21] [cg22] [cg23] [cg24] [cg25] [cg26] [cg27] [cg28] [cg29] [cg30]

I walked into the office of a colleague, a vigorous contraception advocate, a few years ago as she was talking on the phone to a patient. She said, “Well I talked with you about always using a condom…..Well they don’t always work 100%…..Yes, there really is no cure for Herpes.” I started whispering in her ear, “And you will have it for life. It can harm your baby at birth, it can come up often making your life miserable, and it will always be there to interfere with any real solid relationship you want” at which point she made one of those hand signs in front of my face that is composed of all the fingers closed except one. It is contraception’s classic response to the truth.

Emergency Contraception-EC
(Plan B) (Ella-the 5 day abortifacient pill- covered elsewhere-link)
The morning after pill is supposed to be taken within 72 hours of sexual activity. The claim that it does not interfere with a pregnancy, the early embryo, is unfounded and does not jive with known embryology (fertilization) timing. Within 30 minutes to 12 hours from sexual activity fertilization generally occurs, as soon as the man’s sperm joins with the woman’s egg. [cs69] This pill is usually taken the next day or many hours after the sexual encounter. Although sperm can live for 5 days and ovulation can occur after sexual activity this medication’s main mechanism of action is its abortifacient effect. [ce1] [ce6] [ce8] Over 1.5 million morning after pill prescriptions were given out in 2013 by Planned Parenthood. Abotifacient/abortion medication (RU-486, Ella) now accounts for 25% to 35% of all abortions. 11% of sexually active women have used Plan B and the numbers of abortions it truly causes cannot be exactly determined. [ce14] Abortion is a violent act even if just considered at the microscopic level such as caused by the mechanism of action of the morning after pill.

Is Plan B working as planned? No, it is not at all. Supporters initially claimed that having easier access and having the medication on hand would result in a greater than “50% reduction in abortion numbers” and reduced unintended pregnancies. [ce22] Plan B is now known to be less than 60% effective. [ce18] Over 23 studies have shown that it does not reduce pregnancies or abortion. [ce19] [ce22] It not only failed to reduce unintended pregnancies but studies show that the only thing that has been enhanced is this drugs use and its sales. [ce3] [ce5] [ce20] [ce16] [ce19] 10 studies have shown that by having it on hand there is actually an increased use of 2-3 fold despite recommendations that it not be used routinely for birth control. [ce22] By enhancing its use women are repeatedly taking medication with 50x the strength of regular birth control pills [ce6] Over 40% who have used it have used it more than once. [ce11] [ce21] Planned Parenthood and other abortion supporters pushed for and won FDA approval for its over the counter availability and for use in ages as young as 15 despite not being tested in girls that young of age. [ce18] A particularly worrisome aspect is that 1/5 of these teenage women seeking EC tested positive for an STD. [cs14] [cs62] With one in four teenage girls presently with an STD [cs16] [cs48] it means that easy home availability of EC will allow these young girls to remain out of the organized medical system and their STD to remain untreated. As noted above; with chlamydia there is a 25% sterility rate with one infection, 50% with the second, and nearly 100% with a third!

A difficult, debatable ethical dilemma is the use of EC in cases of rape. The abortifacient effect is one problem as is the need to care for these women. EC is not without side effects; nausea(23.1%), abdominal pain(17.6%), fatigue(16.9%), headache(16.8%), heavier menstrual bleeding(13.8%), dizziness(11.2%), breast tenderness(10.7%), vomiting(5.6%), and diarrhea(5%). Data from rapes in Pennsylvania before the morning after pill came along shows just how rare a post rape pregnancy is with no pregnancies in the 5000 rape cases studied. [ag80] There would at least need to be informed consent about EC’s side effects as well as the abortifacient aspects of EC. The only post rape study available showed that post rape women felt like they had been assaulted again by undergoing an abortion and were sorry they had aborted their children. [ag53] [ag67]

My best doctor’s advice for those who are being casually sexually active, the majority of users of Plan B, is to stick with Plan A, do not end up at Plan B. Plan A-abstinence which is 100% effective protection against STDs, unintended pregnancies, abortion nightmares, being sexually abused, increased suicide risk, etc.


Sex offers the co-creative potential of the gift of life. It is ironic that the great deceiver Satan uses this same powerful force through our concupiscence to coerce us to block and destroy life by contraceptive sterility. We sadly and mistakenly believe contraception allows us to separate the unitive aspect from the unfortunately unwanted procreative aspect of the sexual act. However, we cannot truly separate them as they are intrinsically bound by nature. The attempt to do so through contraception comes at a far steeper cost than most people can even imagine. Men and women are divided by and suffer because of contraception’s physical, emotional, and spiritual consequences. Contraception “facilitates sex outside marriage, increases the incidence of STDs, leads to unintended pregnancies and single parenthood, causes and leads to abortion, and contributes to the divorce rate”. [cg1-revised] Its reduction in fertility numbers threatens the well-being of nations. [pc6] [pc14] [pc28] It has helped degrade medical ethics and helped erode our personal and cultural character. Contraception’s elimination of the gift of life comes with the cost of life itself for children and for us the life of our soul.



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ag99.   "Access to Abortion Falling as States Pass Restrictions", ERIK ECKHOLMJAN, 3, 2014, (www).
ag100"Changes in Abortions and Births and the Texas Parental Notification Law", Theodore Joyce, Ph.D., Robert Kaestner, Ph.D., and Silvie Colman, B.B.A., N Engl J Med 2006; 354:1031-1038March 9, 2006, (www).
ag101"If Ultrasounds Make No Difference, Why Do Abortion Activists Oppose Them?," Cassy Fiano, Washington, DC,, 1/12/14, (www).
ag102"Relationship Between Ultrasound Viewing and Proceeding to Abortion", Gatter, Mary MD; Kimport, Katrina PhD; Foster, Diana Greene PhD; Weitz, Tracy A. PhD, MPA; Upadhyay, Ushma D. PhD, MPHObstetrics and Gynecology:January 2014 - Volume 123 - Issue 1 - p 81–87, (www).
ag103"Abortion Doc Who Kills Babies Born Alive Sued for “Permanently Injuring” Woman in Botched Abortion", Steven Ertelt, Houston, TX,, 3/17/14, (www).
ag104"Abortion and Disabilities: 87% of Downs Die, 64% Spina Bifida", Steven Ertelt, Lansing, MI,, 10/10/11, (www).


ai1.     “China bans RU-486”, christianliferesources,(www).
ai2.     “Abortion may increase risk of ectopic pregnancy, researchers suggest”, Tharaux-Deneux, MD, Catherine, American Journal Of Public Health, 1998;88:401-405, (www).
ai3.     “Risk of breast cancer among young women: relationship to induced abortion", Daling, Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Nov. 2, 1994; 86(21): 1569-70, (www).
ai4.     “Risk of beast cancer among white women following induced abortion", Daling, American Journal of Epidemiology, August 15, 1996; 144(4): 373-80, (www).
ai5.     “Major Study on Abortion Finds Risks Much Higher Than Expected”, April 23, 2002 (www).
ai6.     “A List of Major Physical Sequelae Related to Abortion”, Reardon, David C., Eliot Institute, PO Box 73478, Sprinfield, Ill, 62791-7348, (www).
ai7.     "Statistics: Abortion-Related Deaths", (www).
ai8.     “When Abortion Kills Twice-The Breast Cancer Link”, Hoopes, Tom, Crisis, Sept. 2002, pp.20-25, (www).
ai9.     “The Strange Silence About Abortion And Breast Cancer”, Rice, Ellen,(www).
ai10.   “Deaths Associated With Pregnancy Outcome: A Record Linkage Study of Low Income Women”, Reardon et. al., David C., Southern Medical Journal, Vol. 95, No. 8, pp.834-41,(www).
ai11.   “Pregnancy-associated deaths in Finland 1987-1994-definition problems and benefits of record linkage”, Gissler et. al., Mika,(www).
ai12.   “Abortion Is Four Times deadlier Than Childbirth”, Reardon, Ph.D., David C., (www).
ai13.   "Abortion Procedures and Risks",, (www).
ai14.   "More Research Links Abortion with Preterm Births in Subsequent Pregnancies", Hilary White,, Wed Mar 04, 2009, (www).
ai15.   "Abortion VS Childbirth Which is Safer?", J.C. Willke, MD, 2006, Life Issues Institute, (www).
ai16.   "Abortion Increases Women’s Mortality Rate", David Reardon, August 2, 2002, (www).
ai17.   "The Abortion-Breast Cancer Link: How Politics Trumped Science and Informed Consent", Karen Malec, Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons Volume 8 Number 2 Summer 2003, (www).
ai18.   "Women Attribute Substance Abuse, Sexual Disorders, and Suicidal Thoughts to Abortion", from Medical Science Monitor, November 16, 2004, (www).
ai19.   "The Abortion-Breast Cancer Link is America’s Best Kept Secret, Part 1, 2, 3",, (www) and (www) and (www).
ai20.   "Abortion Risks: A list of major physical complications related to abortion", Abortion Risks and Complications, copyright 1997, 2000 Elliot Institute, (www).
ai21.   "The After Effects of Abortion", David Reardon,, (www).
ai22.   "Induced Abortion and Risk of Later Premature Births", Brent Rooney, Byron C. Calhoun, M.D., Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons Volume 8 Number 2 Summer 2003, (www).
ai23.   "The Maternal Mortality Myth in the context of legalized abortion", Bryon Calhoun, West Virginia University, Linacre Quarterly, Catholic Medical Association, Vol 80, #3, August 2013.
ai24.   "Paper Shows Ireland’s Maternal Mortality Half of England’s Without Abortion", Paul Stark, Dublin, Ireland,, 6/20/13, (www).
ai25.   “Putin Signs Law Banning Abortion Ads as It Decimates Russia’s Population”, by Steven Ertelt, Moscow, Russia,, 11/25/13, (www).
ai26.   "Complications of Abortion talk at Medical Women's International Assoc. Banned at last minute", Mary L Davenport, MD, FACOG, August 3, 2013, (www).
ai27.   "Preterm Birth and Abortion-Powerpoint Presentation (downloadable/viewable-no need to save)", Mary L Davenport, MD, FACOG, August 3, 2013, (www).
ai28.   "Maternal Mortality and the Myth of “Safe” Abortion-Powerpoint Presentation (long download/viewable-no need to save)", Dr. Donna Harrison, M.D., August 3, 2013, (www).
ai28.   "Bombshell Study Finds 44% Increased Breast Cancer Risk for Women Having Abortions", by Joel Brind, Ph.D., Washington, DC,, 12/2/13, (www).
ai29.   “The Comparative Safety of Legal Induced Abortion and Childbirth in the United States”, Raymond, Elizabeth G. MD, MPH; Grimes, David A. MD,Obstetrics and Gynecology:February 2012 - Volume 119 - Issue 2, Part 1 - p 215–219, (www).
ai30.   "New Study Shows 'Best Predictor of Breast Cancer'”, Karen Malec, Coalition on Abortion/Breast Cancer, October 3, 2007, (www).
ai31.   "Age at First Birth and Breast Cancer Risk”, B. MACMAHON, P. COLE, T. M. LIN, C. R. LOWE, A. P. MIRRA, B. RAVNIHAR, E. J. SALBER, V. G. VALAORAS and S. YUASA, Bull World Health Organ. 1970; 43(2): 209–221., (www) and (www).
ai32.   "Revealed: how an abortion puts the next baby at risk”, Michael Day, 05/15/2005, News Telegraph, (www).

Abortion-Late Term Abortion

al1.     “Late-term Abortion”, Epner, Jonas, Seckinger, (www).
al2.     “Rationale for Banning Abortions Late in Pregnancy”,Sprang, Neerhof, JAMA, August 26, 1998, Vol. 280, No. 8, pp.744-747, (www).
al3.     "Partial-birth abortion: dispelling the myths", (www).
al4.     "Partial Birth Abortion",, (www).
al5.     "Shots assist in aborting fetuses, Lethal injections offer legal shield", Carey Goldberg, Globe Staff, August 10, 2007, The Boston Globe, (www).
al6.     "Abortion docs reveal partial-birth procedure", World Net Daily News, 04/03/2004, (www).
al7.     "Lies exposed by photos and videos", Barbara Kralis, February 10, 2006,, (www).
al8.     "Key Facts on Partial-Birth Abortion", National Right to Life, February 14, 2003, (www).
al9.     "Saline Abortion", Wikipedia, (www).
al10.   "Partial-birth abortion: a neurosurgeon speaks", Robert J. White, America (NY). 1997 Oct 18;177(11):4-5., (www).
al11.   "Partial Birth Abortion Ban, 2007", Wikipedia, (www).
al12.   "Partial Birth Abortion Ban, 2003", Public Law 108-105, 108th Congress, Page 117 STAT. 1201, (www).

Abortion-Post Abortion Healing/Mental Health Issues

am1.     "Abortion and Healing"; For numerous articles see; (www) and (www).
am2.     “New Study Links Suicide, Abortion”,(www).
am3.     “Suicides after pregnancy in Finland, 1987-94:register linkage study”,Gissler et. al., Mika, BMJ, 1996; 313: pp. 1431-34, (www).
am4.     "Trauma Symptoms After Abortion Are Common New Study Shows", Elliot Institute, November 16, 2004, (www).
am5.     "Women’s Mental Health after Abortion-Powerpoint Presentation (downloadable/viewable-no need to save)", Dr. Martha Shuping, M.D., August 3, 2013, (www).
am6.     "British Woman Committed Suicide After Abortion of Twins Over Extreme Grief" ", Steven Ertelt, WASHINGTON, DC, LIFENEWS.COM, 2/21/08, (www).
am7.     "The Abortion Suicide Connection", David Reardon, Phd., November 23, 1999 by EI, (www).
am8.     "Abortion Increases Risk of Women’s Mental Health Problems 81%", Steven Ertelt, London, England,, 9/1/11, (www).
am9.     "Abortion and mental health: quantitative synthesis and analysis of research published 1995–2009", Priscilla K. Coleman, BJP- The British Journal of Psychiatry(2011); 199:180-186, doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.110.077230, (www).
am10.    "MAJOR STUDY ON ABORTION FINDS RISKS MUCH HIGHER THAN EXPECTED", The National Catholic Register, 23-April-2002, (www).
am11.    "Women Need More Mental Health Treatment After Abortion, New Study Finds", Coleman PK, Reardon DC, Rue VM, Cougle JR. “State-funded abortions vs. deliveries: A comparison of outpatient mental health claims over five years.” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 2002, Vol. 72, No. 1, 141, (www).
am12.    "Study finds depression suffered by 80% of women who abort", CNA, Madrid, Spain, Dec 9, 2008, (www).
am14.    "Depression associated with abortion and childbirth: a long-term analysis of the NLSY cohort", Jesse R. Cougle, David C. Reardon, Priscilla K. Coleman, Med Sci Monit 2003;9(4):CR105-112, (www).
am15.    "A List of Major Psychological Sequelae of Abortion", Elliot Institute, November 23, 1999, (www).
am16.    "Royal College Warns Abortions Can Lead to Mental Illness", Sarah-Kate Templeton, Times Online, Mar. 16, 2008, (www).
am17.    "Traumatised Health Care Professionals Forced to Take Part in Abortion Procedures",, 29 June 2002, (www).
am18.    "Induced abortion and traumatic stress: a preliminary comparison of American and Russian women", Rue VM, Coleman PK, Rue JJ, Reardon DC, Med Sci Monit. 2004 Oct;10(10):SR5-16, (www).


cg1.     “Contraception: Why Not”, Janet Smith, Catholic Educator’s Resource Center: Sexuality, (www-revised) and (www-classic).
cg2.     “Condom slipups Common among college-age men”, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Sept. 2002,(www) and (www) and (www-Sept 4).
cg3.     "Study: Contraception use up, abortions double; researchers can’t figure out why", Jill Stanek-Reports.,(www).
cg4.     "WHAT DOES THE CHURCH TEACH ABOUT BIRTH CONTROL?", Couple to Couple League, EWTN, (www).
cg5.     "The Passions Behind the Pill, Helping women in poverty is what drove the development of the oral contraceptive", Katherine Leitzell, US News And World Report, 8/5/2007, (www).
cg6.     "Contraceptive Failure Chart",, (www).
cg7.     "Comstock Laws", Wikipedia, (www).
cg8.     "A Challenging Truth, Part One: How Birth Control Works", Patti Maguire Armstrong, Catholic Exchange, Free Republic, February 9, 2008, (www).
cg9.     "Are All Contraceptive Failures Unintended Pregnancies? Evidence from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth", James Trussell, Barbara Vaughan and Joseph Stanford, Family Planning Perspectives, Guttmacher Institute, Volume 31, Number 5, September/October 1999, (www).
cg10.   "Condom Use Still Low Among Adults", Dr. Choy Y. Man said at the annual Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 2002, (www).
cg11.   "The Contraception Contradiction-Growing evidence suggests that the “more contraceptives, fewer abortions, theory is flawed", Danile Alott, Catholic World Report, May 28, 2012, (www).
cg12.   "DISPELLING THE MYTHS behind conception, contraception and abortifacient drugs", J. C. Willke, MD and Bradley Mattes, MBS, Life Issues Institute, 2010, (www).
cg13.   "Contraceptive References in the Bible", FR. WILLIAM SAUNDERS, (www).
cg14.   "Does the Bible Condemn Use of Contraceptives", Peter Dawson, Family Foundations, Couple to Couple, March-April 2003.
cg15.   "The Treatment of Sexual Assault Victims", Kevin T. McMahahon, Ethics and Medics, National Catholic Bioethics Center, September 2002, Volume 27, Number 9.
cg16.   "Physicians Groups Charge US Government with Condom Cover-up", Austin Ruse, C-Fam, April 17,2001, (www).
cg17.   "How well do condoms work against STDs?-Debate over whether warning labels should be changed",, 6/29/2005, (www).
cg18.   "Despite guidelines, U.S. condom use still low", BRUCE JANCIN, Denver Bureau, COPYRIGHT 2004 International Medical News Group,, (www).
cg19.   "NIH Condom Report Draws Fire", The Body, August 1, 2001, (www).
cg20.   "Workshop Summary: Scientific Evidence on Condom Effectiveness for Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Prevention", June 12-13, 2000 Hyatt Dulles Airport Herndon, Virginia, (www).
cg21.   "No Protection: Federal Study Highlights Condom's Ineffectiveness", Eve Tushnet, National Caatolic Register, September 2-8, 2001.
cg22.   "The pope was right about condoms, says Harvard HIV expert", William Crawley, Sunday, 29 March 2009, BBC News, (www).
cg23.   "Condoms, STD, Teenagers, and International Case Studies Showing Condom Ineffectiveness Against HIV/AIDS", Life Issues Institute, (www).
cg24.   "New Research Shows Dangers of Condoms in HIV Prevention", Culture of Life Foundation and Institute, January 13, 2004 Posted on Tuesday, (www).
cg25.   "Muslim Women on Condom Machines: “Don’t ruin our culture, Remove these machines”, Gudrun Schultz, Dec. 14, 2005,, (www).
cg26.   "Condoms are not reliable in fight against HIV, says African cardinal", Carol Glatz, Catholic News Service, Oct. 5, 2009, (www).
cg27.   "Uganda clearly shows contraceptives not the answer to HIV/AIDS epidemic", Brian Clowes, Oct 11, 2011, Lifesitenews, (www).
cg28.   "Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Report Shows Condoms Provide Inadequate Risk Reduction From U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention", December 23, 2002 The Body, (www).
cg29.   "The Case Against Condoms", A Reflection by His Eminence Alfonso Cardinal Lopez Trujillo, President, Prontifical Council for the Family, December 1, 2003, (www).
cg30.   "Benedict XVI on Condoms and AIDS", James McTavish, April, 2013, (www).
cg31.   "Report Shows Contraception Failure, 54% Used Before Abortion”, Steven Ertelt, Washington, DC,, 1/11/11, (www).
cg32.   "The Bible and Birth Control”, Scott Hahn, Touchstone Magazine, Criswell College, (www-Hahn).
cg33.   "Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods", CDC‎, (www).
cg34.   "Sex, Condoms, and STDs: What We Now Know", monograph by The Medical Institute, (www) and (www).
cg35.   "Scientific Review of Condom Effectiveness Research Reveals Condoms Provide Inadequate Risk Reduction For Sexually Transmitted Diseases", The Medical Institute for Sexual Health, 2002, (www).
cg36.   "Contraceptives and the Law-A View From a Catholic Medical Institution", Eric A. Zimmer, SJ, PhD; Jos V. M. Welie, JD, PhD, MA, MMedS; Marc S. Rendell, MD, JAMA.May 2013;309(19):1999-2000, (www).


ci1.     "Breast Cancer Its Link to Abortion and the Birth Control Pill", Kahlenborn, Chris, MD, (www).
ci2.     “Hormone Replacement Therapy in Relation to Breast Cancer”, Chen, Weiss, Newcomb, Barlow, White, JAMA, Feb. 13, 2002, Vol. 287, No. 6, pp.734-41, (www).
ci3.     “Birth Control Pill/Breast Cancer Study Another Victim Of Biased Reporting”, search  (www).
ci4.     "Ortho-Novum 7/7/7-Mechanisam of Action and Unintended Pregnancies", Physicians Desk Reference, (www).
ci5.     "More birth control choices for women over 40", Dangers of the BCP for many,, 4/4/2008,(www).
ci6.     "Pill inventor slams ... pill", January 08, 2009, (www).
ci7.     "Delay in conception for former 'pill' users", Linn S, Schoenbaum SC, Monson RR, Rosner B, Ryan KJ, JAMA. 1982 Feb 5;247(5):629-32, (www).
ci8.     "The Harms of Contraception", Life, One More Soul, (www).
ci9.     "Ortho Evra A New Option in Birth Control"-database does not quite go back this far, Volume 17, Issue 3 Jan 2002, (www).
ci10.   "Postfertilization Effects of Oral Contraceptives and Their Relationship to Informed Consent", Walter L. Larimore, MD; Joseph B. Stanford, MD, MSPH , Arch Fam Med. 2000;9:126-133, The Polycarp, (www).
ci11.   "Hormonal Contraceptives", Couple to Couple League, (www).
ci12.   "Nonoxynol-9 Spermicide Contraception Use-United States, 1999", MMWR, 2002:51:289-392, (www).
ci13.   "Real Contraceptive Choices: Alternatives to Risky Hormone Pills, Patches and Shots", Dr. Mercola, July 10, 2010, (www).
ci14.   "What a Woman Should Know about Birth Control", Chris Kahlenborn, MD, One More Soul, (www).
ci15.   "What a Woman Should Know about Contraceptives", Catholic News Agency, (www).
ci16.   "Canadian MP says Cancer Society Withholding Pill/Cancer Link", Hilary White, Lifesitenews, March 17, 2006, (www).
ci17.   "Abstract 3537: Oral Contraceptives Cause Major C-reactive Protein Rises in the Female General Population" taking for 10 years increased plaque 20-30%, Ernst Rietzschel1; Marc De Buyzere1; Dirk De Baquer1; Michel Langlois2; Sofie Bekaert3; Patrick Segers3; Piet Van Damme4; Pascal Verdonck5; Guy De Backer5; Thierry C Gillebert5, ASKLEPIOS investigators, Circulation. 2007;116:II_800-II_801, (www).
ci18.   "Oral contraceptive risks: a realistic appraisal", Bressler R, Durand JL, Drug Ther (NY). 1979 Oct;9(10):81-95, (www).
ci19.   "Possible Interventions to Minimize the Bone Mineral Density Loss Associated with Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Use in Adolescents and Young Adults", Zeev Harel, MD, Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, Brown University School of Medicine, 2011, U S O B S T E T R I C S and G Y N E C O L O G Y, (www).
ci20.   "Primary liver tumors and oral contraceptives. Results of a survey", Vana J, Murphy GP, Aronoff BL, Baker HW, JAMA. 1977 Nov 14;238(20):2154-8, (www).
ci21.   "The Neurological Complicattions of the Pill", Hanna Damasio, M.D., Medical Times, Vol. 109, No. 6, June, 1981.
ci22.   "Migraine with aura tied to stroke risk in young women: smoking, OCS compound odds of ischemia", Worcester, Sharon, Family Practice News, April 1, 2007, (www).
ci23.   "Poisoned by the Pill: Truths about Chemical Contraception", Mary Anne Moresco, Feb 20, 2012 in Featured, Life Issues and Bioethics, Catholic Lane, (www).
ci24.   "Contraceptive Dangers", Zenit, January 08, 2005, (www-1) and (www-2).
ci25.   "Estrogen therapy linked to breast lumps", Heather Vannest, Apr 8, 2008, (www).
ci26.   "Lung Cancer Mortality Higher in Women Who Used Combination Hormone Therapy", Tracy Hampton, PhD, JAMA. 2009;302(6):615-616. doi:10.1001/jama.2009.1117, (www).
ci27.   "Hormone Therapy and Ovarian Cancer", Lina Steinrud Mørch, MSc; Ellen Løkkegaard, MD, PhD; Anne Helms Andreasen, MSc; Susanne Krüger-Kjær, MD, DrMSci; Øjvind Lidegaard, MD, DrMSci, JAMA. 2009;302(3):298-305. doi:10.1001/jama.2009.1052, (www).
ci28.   "Cervical cancer and use of hormonal contraceptives: a systematic review.", Smith, Et. Al., Lancet. 2003 Apr 5;361(9364):1159-67, (www).
ci29.   "Hormonal birth control, bacterial infections in women linked to increased shedding of type-2 herpes", Dr. Thomas Cherpes, Et. Al., University of Pittsburgh and Magee-Womens Research Institute, (www).
ci30.   "Birth Control Pill May Permanently Reduce Sex Drive Study Finds", Lifesitenews, May 26, 2005, (www).
ci31.   "Birth Control Pill May Cause Prostate Cancer and Bladder Disease in Mothers’ Children", Lifesitenews, May 04, 2005, (www).
ci32.   "Low dose birth control pill raises heart attack risk, especially in some women", News Medical Net, July 11, 2005, (www).
ci33.   "Hormonal Changes Causing Sexual Dysfunction May Not Be Immediately Reversible", Miranda Hitti, WebMD Health News, May 19, 2005, (www).
ci34.   "Depression and Hormonal Contraception—Reply", Marlene P. Freeman, MD, JAMA. 2001;286(6):671-672. doi:10.1001/jama.286.6.671, (www).
ci35.   "Researchers Explain Why Having Baby Reduces Breast Cancer Chances", Steven Ertelt, WASHINGTON, DC, LIFENEWS.COM, 10/2/07, (www).
ci36.   "A Case-Control Study of Oral Contraceptive Use and Incident Breast Cancer", Lynn Rosenberg,corresponding author Yuqing Zhang, Patricia F. Coogan, Brian L. Strom, and Julie R. Palmer, Am J Epidemiol. 2009 February 15; 169(4): 473–479, (www).
ci37.   "Study: Long use of any hormones poses breast cancer risk", Darr Beiser,, (www).
ci38.   "Decline in U.S. Breast Cancers Tied to Drop in Hormone Use", Amanda Gardner, HealthDay Reporter , Tuesday, August 14, 2007, (www).
ci39.   "Incidence of Breast Cancer With Distant Involvement Among Women in the United States, 1976 to 2009 ", Rebecca H. Johnson, MD; Franklin L. Chien, BA; Archie Bleyer, MD, JAMA. 2013;309(8):800-805., (www).
ci40.   "Oral contraceptives and the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.", Narod SA, Et.Al., J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002 Dec 4;94(23):1773-9, (www).
ci41.   "Breast Cancer Risk from The Pill ", Dr. Chris Kahlenborn, One More Soul,, (www).
ci42.   "World Health Organization Classifies Contraceptives as Highly Carcinogenic",, Mon Aug 08, 2005, (www).
ci43.   "New Risk Data Added to Contraceptive Patch Label", JOHN R. BELL, FamilyPracticeNews, 10/15/2006, (www).
ci44.   "FDA announces review of birth control pills over serious blood clot risks", Peter J. Smith, Wed Jun 01, 2011, (www).
ci45.   "Study adds to evidence on clot risks of non-oral contraceptives", Øjvind Lidegaard, Professor of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Gynaecological Clinic, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, May 9, 2012, (www).
ci46.   "Venous thrombosis in users of non-oral hormonal contraception: follow-up study, Denmark 2001-10", Øjvind Lidegaard, Et.Al., BMJ 2012; 344, (www).
ci47.   "FDA Drug Safety Communication: Safety review update on the possible increased risk of blood clots with birth control pills containing drospirenone", 09-26-2011, (www).
ci48.   "Mirena complications",, (www).
ci49.   "FDA requires warning labels for nonoxynol 9", Schneider, Mary Ellen, Family Practice News, January 1, 2008, (www).
ci50.   "Contracepting the Environment-environmentalists Mum", WAYNE LAUGESEN, National Catholic Register, Tuesday, Jul 10, 2007, (www).
ci51.   "Estrogen Plus Progestin and Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Postmenopausal Women", Rowan T. Chlebowski, MD, Et.Al., JAMA. 2010;304(15):1684-1692, (www).
ci52.   "Confirmed: breast Ca more likely in HRT users.", ROBERT FINN, Sept. 15, 2010, FROM CANCER EPIDEMIOLOGY, BIOMARKERS AND PREVENTION, (www).
ci53.   "Postmenopausal Hormone Treatment", Stephen Hulley, MD, MPH; Deborah Grady, MD, MPH, JAMA. 2009;301(23):2493-2495, (www).
ci54.   "Hormone Replacement Therapy Linked to Ovarian Cancer", Allison Gandey, April 24, 2007, Medscape Family Medicine, (www).
ci55.   "Estrogen Plus Progestin and the Incidence of Dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment in Postmenopausal WomenThe Women's Health Initiative Memory Study: A Randomized Controlled Trial", Sally A. Shumaker, PhD, Et.Al., JAMA. 2003;289(20):2651-2662, (www).
ci56.   "Oral contraceptives linked to increased risk of multiple sclerosis", Nicole Kwan, Published February 28, 2014,, (www).
ci57.   "Depression as a side effect of the contraceptive pill", Kulkarni J., Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2007 Jul;6(4):371-4., (www).
ci58.   "Some Oral Contraceptive Side Effects Irreversible", By: MIRIAM E. TUCKER, (www).
ci59.   "Risks of breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers after twin births", Jianguang Ji1, Asta Fôrsti1, Jan Sundquist, Kari Hemminki, Deutsche Krebshilfe, the Swedish Cancer Society, (www).
ci60.   "The Effects of Twins, Parity and Age at First Birth on Cancer Risk in Swedish Women", Neale, Rachel E.1; Darlington, Steven2; Murphy, Michael F.G.3; Silcocks, Paul B.S.4; Purdie, David M.5; Talbäck, Mats, Twin Research and Human Genetics, Volume 8, Number 2, April 2005 , pp. 156-162(7), (www).
ci61.   "Hormonal contraceptives increase risk of HSV-2 transmission", Thomas Cherpes, MD, of the Magee-Womens Research Institute, Published on April 6, 2005, Medical Net News, (www).
ci62.   "Pill increases breast cancer risk", BBC News, Posted on ‎3‎/‎23‎/‎2002‎, (www).
ci63.   "Contraceptive Used in Africa May Double Risk of H.I.V.", PAM BELLUCK, Published: October 3, 2011‎, (www).
ci64.   "Hormonal contraception and HIV: an unanswered question EDITORIAL", Charles S Morrison a, Kavita Nanda a, a Clinical Sciences, FHI 360, Durham, NC, USA‎, (www).
ci65.   "Study: Depo Provera Use Increases Breast Cancer Risk", National, Steven Ertelt, Jun 11, 2012, Washington, DC, (www).
ci66.   "The Lancet Infectious Diseases: Study supports link between injectable hormonal contraceptive and HIV risk, Lauren Ralph, lead author, epidemiologist, The University of California at Berkeley‎, (www).

Contraception-Emergency Contraception

ce1.     "Postfertilization Effect of Hormonal Emergency Contraception", Chris Kahlenborn, Joseph B Stanford, and Walter L Larimore, The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 2002 March, Volume 36, (www).
ce2.     "Mass. Emergency Contraception Bill Vetoed", July 27, 2005, Associated Press, (www).
ce3.     "Population Effect of Increased Access to Emergency Contraceptive Pills: A Systematic Review", Raymond, Elizabeth G. MD, MPH1; Trussell, James PhD2; Polis, Chelsea B.3, Obstetrics and Gynecology: January 2007 - Volume 109 - Issue 1 - pp 181-188, (www).
ce4.     "Researcher Confirms Abortion Drug Causes Rare Infection Killing Women". Steven Ertelt, Editor, July 27, 2005, (www).
ce5.     "Direct Access to Emergency Contraception", A response to "Direct Access to Emergency Contraception Through Pharmacies and Effect on Unintended Pregnancy and STIs-A Randomized Controlled Trial", JAMA. 2005;293(15):1856-1857, h(www).
ce6.     "Why this pharmacy does not sell the 'morning-after' pill", John Wilks B. Pharm., MPS, MACPP,, (www).
ce7.     "China Bans RU 486 Abortion Drug October 22, 2001", Christian Life Resources, (www).
ce8.     "The "Morning After" Pill", DR. JOHN J. B. SHEA, M.D., Catholic Insight (May, 2004), (www).
ce9.     "Facts of Life: Chapter 2: Abortifacients: (5) The RU-486 Abortion Pill--Part 1, Part 2", Human Life International, (www), Part 1, (www).
ce10.   "Study: morning-after pill doesn’t reduce unwanted pregnancy", Eben Harrell,, March 17, 20,, and, Arland K. Nichols, ZENIT, The world seen from Rome News Agency, (www).
ce11.   "Use of Morning-After Pill on the Rise: CDC", THURSDAY, Feb. 14 (HealthDay News), (www).
ce12.   "RU-486 Facts", (www).
ce13.   "FDA approves a five-day pill", Rob Stein, Washington Post, Friday, August 13, 2010,(www).
ce14.   "Abortion pill used in a quarter of US abortions", Jul 09, 2009, (www).
ce15.   "Abortion Drug Has Killed 29 Women, European Maker Tells Italy’s Government", Steven Ertelt, WASHINGTON, DC, LIFENEWS.COM, 7/31/09, (www).
ce16.   "Repeat Pregnancies Occur in Teens, Despite Access to ECPs", DIANA MAHONEY, Family Practice News, 06/15/07, (www).
ce17.   "Does Emergency Contraception Cause Early Abortions?", CHRISTIAN BRUGGER, National Catholic Register, 04/25/2013, (www-part1) and (www-part2).
ce18.   "FDA Makes Plan B Contraceptive Available to 15-Year-Olds", SUE ELLEN BROWDER, National Catholic Register, 05/09/2013, (www).
ce19.   "Population Effect of Increased Access to Emergency Contraceptive Pills: A Systematic Review", Raymond, Elizabeth G. MD, MPH1; Trussell, James PhD2; Polis, Chelsea B, Obstetrics And Gynecology: January 2007 - Volume 109 - Issue 1 - pp 181-188, (www).
ce20.   "EC on hand failed to cut pregnancy rates.(WOMEN'S HEALTH)(emergency contraception)(Clinical report)", Worcester, Sharon , Family Practice News, April 1, 2010, (www).
ce21.   "Morning-after pill use rises in US",, Feb 14, 2013, (www).
ce22.   "Emergency Contraception Fails to Reduce Unintended Pregnancy and Abortion",, (www).

Contraception-Sexual Health

cs1.     “Birth Control and Christian Discipleship”, Kippley, John, CCL, May, 2001, (www).
cs2.     “In the service to the gospel of life: Male-female complimentarity”, Haas, John, A Conference on Christian Sexuality: an examination of the ‘Theology of the Body’", July, 18-20, 2002, (www).
cs3.     “Adolescent Sexuality: A Review of the role of the School, parents and the Medical Profession”, The Linacre Quarterly, Catholic Medical Association, Feb 2002, Vol. 69, N.1.
cs4.     Effects of Contraception on Personal Relationships, Human Life International, (www).
cs5.     "Won't safe sex protect you from getting an STD?", (www).
cs6.     "Aha, Call it revenge of the church ladies", Mattox Jr., William R., USA Today, Feb 12, 1999, (www).
cs7.     Sex has a Price Tag, Stenzel, Pam,(www).
cs8.     "The Truth about Gardasil", Thaddeus M. Baklinski, interview with Dr. Diane Harper-director of the Gynecologic Cancer Prevention Research Group at the University of Missouri, October 28, 2009,, (www).
cs9.     "Judicial Watch Uncovers Three Deaths Relating to HPV Vaccine", May 02, 2007, (www).
cs10.   "Merck’s HPV Gardasil Vaccine: Risks, Benefits, Marketing – JAMA", original link:, (www).
cs11.   "Marketing HPV VaccineImplications for Adolescent Health and Medical Professionalism", Sheila M. Rothman, PhD; David J. Rothman, PhD, JAMA. August 19, 2009;302(7):781-786, (www).
cs12.   "Genital Shedding of Herpes Simplex Virus Among Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Persons With HSV-2 Infection", Elizabeth Tronstein, MPH Et.Al., JAMA. Oct 13, 2011;305(14):1441-1449, (www).
cs13.   "Social rejection shares somatosensory representations with physical pain", Contributed by Edward E. Smith, February 22, 2011; Ethan Kross Et.Al., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, March 2011, (www).
cs15.   "Chlamydia Screening Among Sexually Active Young Female Enrollees of Health Plans—United States, 2000-2007", MMWR. 2009;58:362-365, JAMA. August 12, 2009;302(6):620-621, reported by; K Ahmed, PhD, S Scholle, DrPH, H Baasiri, MPH, National Committee for Quality Assurance, (www).
cs16.   "Nationally Representative CDC Study Finds 1 in 4 Teenage Girls Has a Sexually Transmitted Disease", CDC, Sara Forhan, M.D., M.P.H, March 11, 2008, (www).
cs17.   "Annual CDC Report Finds High Burden of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Especially among Women and Racial Minorities", January 13, 2009, (www).
cs18.   "Sex and Consequences", Janice Shaw Crouse, Jan 10, 2007, (www).
cs19.   "Teen Sex Leads to Depression and Drug Use", Janice Shaw Crouse, Concerned Women for America, 2007, (www).
cs20.   "Sex, Drug Use Increase Teen Depression, Suicide, Risky Behavior Should Prompt Further Screening", NIDA News Scan, April 09, 2005, Dr. Denise Hallfors and her colleagues published this study in the October 2004 issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, (www).
cs21.   "U.S. Syphilis Rate Grows for 7th Year in Row-Increase largely driven by new cases among gay, bisexual men CDC reports", Steven Reinberg, 3/12/08, Copyright © 2008 ScoutNews, (www).
cs22.   "CDC: More than 3 Million teenage Girls Have an STI", Sullivan, Michele G., April 1, 2008, International Medical News Group, (www).
cs23.   "More younger children are having sex - survey", Juggie Naran, July 10 2005 at 02:46pm, (www).
cs24.   "Sex at School Increasing, Some Educators Say", Tara Bahrampour and Ian Shapira, Washington Post Staff Writers, Sunday, November 6, 2005, (www).
cs25.   "Study: Sex Abuse Prevalent in Schools", Fox News, June 30, 2004, (www).
cs26.   "Sex is increasingly more hazardous to our health", Amy White, 7/17/2003, STL Today, (www).
cs27.   "Schools and Sex Education: Does It Work?", James W. Stout, Frederick P. Rivara, Pediatrics vol. 83 No. 3 March 1989, (www).
cs28.   "Teens Report Peer Pressure to Have Sex", U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-Kaiser Family Foundation Survey, May 20, 2003, (www).
cs29.   "Contraception Calling-Why Aren't more Women Listening", National Campaign to prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy-2013, (www).
cs31.   "Sex Manifesto Promotes 'Fun' to Youth", Scott Hogenson,, July 7, 2008, (www).
cs32.   "Hayley DiMarco: The New Promiscuous", By The 700 Club,, 7/20/2006, (www).
cs33.   "The Association between Parent, Family, and Peer Religiosity and Teenagers’ Sexual Experience and Contraceptive Use", NATIONAL CAMPAIGN TO PREVENT TEEN PREGNANCY, Number 20 November 2005, (www).
cs34.   "Teen sex is not inevitable", Cal Thomas, 6/1/2001, (www).
cs35.   "Sexual Behavior and Selected Health Measures: Men and Women 15–44 Years of Age, United States, 2002", William D. Mosher, Ph.D. Et.Al., Number 362 + September 15, 2005, (www).
cs36.   "The mass media are an important context for adolescents’ sexual behavior", Kelly Ladin L’Engle, Journal of Adolescent Health 38 (2006) 186–192, (www).
cs37.   "Data Concerning Contraception and Sexuality-points to consider", David Ramsey, M.D., (link).
cs38.   "The Two Become One: The Role of Oxytocin and Vasopression", Physicians for Life, (www).
cs39.   "Adolescent Brain Blamed for Risky Sexual Behavior", SARA FREEMAN, Hospitalist News Digital Network, 12/15/2010, (www).
cs40.   "Virginity's making a comeback, report says", Diane Mapes, contributor, 3/3/2011, (www).
cs41.   "Study showing most teens to be virgins undercuts sex ed advocates, group says", Washington D.C., Jul 11, 2010 / 07:31 am (EWTN News), (www).
cs42.   "At What Age Do Adolescents Become Sexually Active? (Hint: It's Later than You Think)", Carlos Polo , July 22, 2011, Population Research Institute, (www).
cs43.   "Fatherhood could alter men's behavior", Sharon Jayson, USA TODAY, 6/13/2012, (www).
cs44.   "No hooking up, no sex for some coeds", Stephanie Chen, CNN, April 19, 2010, (www).
cs45.   "Delaying Sex Makes Better Relationships, Study Finds", Jeanna Bryner, 28 December 2010, Live Science, (www).
cs46.   "Women on Birth Control Pill May Be Attracted to 'Wrong' Sex Partner", Louise Chang, MD, WEB.MD, Aug. 12, 2008, (www).
cs47.   "Prepregnancy Contraceptive Use Among Teens with Unintended Pregnancies Resulting in Live Births — Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), 2004–2008", MMWR, January 20, 2012, 61(02);25-29, (www).
cs48.   "Sex: What Do Women (and Men) Really Want?", Theresa Notaré, M.A., United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, (www).
cs49.   "Sex Habits Linked to Early Death, Disability",, Jan. 26, 2005, (www).
cs50.   "Sex Education and Teen Sex", (www).
cs51.   "The impact of sex education on sexual activity, contraceptive use and premarital pregnancy among American teenagers", Marsiglio W, Mott FL., Fam Plann Perspect. 1986 Jul-Aug;18(4):151-62, (www).
cs52.   "Why Risk a Young Life for Sex?", Geraldine Sealey,, 2002, (www).
cs53.   “Fertility, Family Planning and Women’s Health; New Data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth”, Abma, J. et al., Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Report No. 19; Series 23, 1997, (www).
cs54.   "Making Time For A Baby", Nancy Gibbs, Time, Apr. 15, 2002, (www).
cs55.   "Teens Sex Activity Tied to Drink and Drugs", National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia Univeristy-2004 annual report,, Aug 20, 2004, (www).
cs56.   National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia Univeristy-annual reports, (www).
cs57.   "Adolescent sexual health", Patricia J. Sulak, MD, The Journal of family Practice, July 2004, (www).
cs58.   "Darwinism, Contraception, and the Decline of Manhood", Lionel Tiger, The Decline of Males (New York: Golden Books, 1999), Reviewed by Ryan C. MacPherson, September 2008, (www).
cs59.   "Science Finds More To "Chemistry" Than Previously Thought", Eric J. Keroack, M.D., FACOG and John R. Riggs, M.D., May-June 2001, Couple to Couple League Family Foundations.
cs60.   "To the brain the pain of rejection really hurts", Randolph E. Schmid AP Science Writer, March 28, 2011, (www).
cs61.   "Virgin at 18? Here's a Big Payoff!", ‎5‎/‎21‎/‎2005‎ ‎1‎:‎16‎:‎12‎, (www).
cs62.   "Stds Going Undiagnosed in High-Risk Group", ‎Brunk, Doug, September 1, 2010, Family Practice News, COPYRIGHT 2009 International Medical News Group., (www).
cs63.   "STDs increasing among young women; more prevention urged", Christine S. Moyer, Posted Dec. 7, 2009‎,, (www).
cs64.   "Persistent STD rates are a 'major area of concern': chlamydia poses opportunity for impact", ‎Evans, Jeff, Family Practice News, February 1, 2009, COPYRIGHT 2009 International Medical News Group‎, (www).
cs65.   "Teen sex, drugs may be catalyst for depression.(Mental Health)", Mahoney, Diana, ‎Family Practice News, November 15, 2005, (www).
cs66.   "National Survey of American Attitudes on Substance Abuse IX: Teen Dating Practices and Sexual Activity",, August 2004‎, (www).
cs67.   "Virgin at 18? Here's a Big Payoff!", ‎5‎/‎21‎/‎2005‎ ‎1‎:‎16‎:‎12‎, (www).
cs68.   "The effects of sex education on adolescent behavior", ‎Dawson DA.‎, Fam Plann Perspect 1986 Sep-Oct;18(5):242, (www).
cs69.   "Life Begins at Fertilization", ‎(www).
cs70.   "Want a happy marriage? Save sex for 'I do,' new study finds", ‎National Marriage Project, The University of Virginia, "Before 'I Do'", Dr. Galena K. Rhoades, Dr. Scott M. Stanley, (www).


ca1.     "SEX ABSTINENCE PROGRAM A SUCCESS, STUDY FINDS",, Oct 07, 2002, (www).
ca3.     "New Study Finds Abstinence Pays Off in the Long Run", LIFESITENEWS.COM, Fri May 06, 2005, (www).
ca4.     "Abstinence Education", American College of Pediatricians, March 13, 2009-Edited January 28, 2010, (www).
ca5.     "Abstinence. It works every time", Focus on the Family, copyright 1999, Catholic Education Resource Center, (www).
ca6.     "Uganda clearly shows contraceptives not the answer to HIV/AIDS epidemic", Brian Clowes, Oct 11, 2011, Lifesitenews, (www).
ca7.     "Reducing Adolescent Pregnancy Through School and Community-Based Education", Murray L. Vincent, EdD; Andrew F. Clearie, MSPH; Mark D. Schluchter, PhD, JAMA. 1987;257(24):3382-3386, (www).
ca8.     "Can Abstinence Work? An Analysis of the Best Friends Program", Robert Lerner, PhD.,, (www).
ca9.     "Best Friends Results", Best Friends Foundation, (www).
ca10.   "Impact Evaluation of the "Not Me, Not Now" Abstinence-Oriented, Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Communications Program", Original article authored by: Andrew S. Doniger, Edgar Adams, Cheryl A. Utter, and John S. Riley, 2009, (www).

Death Penalty

dp1.     "Capital punishment", Wikipedia,(www).
dp2.     "6th Amendment to the Constitution", Wikipedia, (www).
dp3.     "Universal Declaration of Human Rights", Wikipedia, (www).           
dp4.     "Killing with Kindness: Why the FDA need not certify drugs used for execution safe and effective", Annas G.J., American J. Public Health, 75:1096-1099, 1985, (www).
dp5.     "The Death Penalty", Theology Library, (www).
dp6.     "The Revenge of Conscience", J. Budziszewski, Copyright (c) 1998 First Things 84 (June/July 1998): 21-27, (www).
dp7.     "Capital Punishment: The Case for Justice", J. Budziszewski,, (www).
dp8.     Pro-Death Penalty articles,, (www).
dp9.     "The Death Penalty: What’s a Catholic to Think?", discussion of National Catholic Register's symposium on the death penalty, Sister Renée Mirkes, O.S.F., Ph.D., (www).
dp10.   "Pope John Paul's Teaching on Capital Punishment", Jim Cosgrove, Register Correspondent, National Catholic Register, Mar 24, 2002, (www).
dp11.   "The Constitution Project", Anti-deatth penalty,, (www).
dp12.   "Lethal injection: a stain on the face of medicine", BMJ 2002;325:1026, (www).
dp13.   "Physician participation in capital punishment", American Medical Association, (www).
dp14.   "Opinion 2.06 - Capital Punishment", American Medical Association, (www).
dp15.   "Studies Say Death Penalty Deters Crime", ROBERT TANNER, The Associated Press , June 11, 2007, The Washington Post, (www).
dp16.   "U.S. sees 200th DNA conviction reversal", Apr 23, 2007, (www).
dp17.   "New Jersey man to be released after nearly two decades in prison", Innocence Project, May 15, 2007, (www).
dp18.   "Should DNA results lead to new trials? ", Warren Richey, Staff writer of The Christian Science Monitor, January 11, 2006, (www).
dp19.   "Capital Punishment - The Pope's Position", EWTN, 2002, (www).
dp20.   "Strong Vatican support for death-penalty abolition", February 07, 2007,, (www).
dp21.   "SUPPORT FOR DEATH PENALTY STILL VERY STRONG", Humphrzey Taylor, jan 7, 2004, Harris Interactive, (www).
dp22.   "Public Attitudes Toward Capital Punishment-Capital Punishment: Cruel and Unusual?",, 2008, (www).

Embryo Vaccines

ev1.     "Aborted Fetal Cell Line Vaccines And The Catholic Family-A Moral Perspective", Debra L. Vinnedge, 2003, 103 pages, (www).
ev2.     "Moral Reflections on Vaccines Prepared from Cells Derived from Aborted Human Fetuses", letter to Mrs. Debra Vinnedge, executive director, Children of God for Life, from Bishop Elio Sgreccia, president of the Pontifical Academy for Life, June 9, 2005, (www) Full text of that dialogue is found at: (www) .
ev3.     "Vaccines from Abortion: The Full Truth", Debra Vinnedge, Celebrate Life, ALL, July-Auguat 2001.
ev4.     "In light of "Virologic Assistance in the Management of German Measles in Pregnancy", JAMA, Oct. 26, 1964, vol. 190, pp. 265-268-Continued Moral Reflections on Vaccines Prepared from Cells Derived from Aborted Human Foetuses, Debra Vinnege,, (www).
ev5.     "Biotech Firm to Provide Alternatives to Vaccines Using Tissue From Abortions", Steven Erteit,, 2/29/2008, (www).
ev6.     "Immunity from Evil? Vaccines Derived from Abortions", Jameson Taylor, Lay Witness Jan/Feb 2003, Catholics United for the Faith, (www).
ev7.     "The Campaign for Ethical Vaccines and Medicines", Children of God for Life, (www).
ev8.     "Is aborted fetal DNA linked to autism?", Theresa A. Deisher, Ph.D., August 12, 2009, ALL-Judy Brown, (www).
ev9.     "Autism: Study Confirms Increased Rates Correlate with Use of Aborted Fetal Cells", Aaron Turpen, Natural, May 01, 2010, (www).
ev10.   "Study Suggests Link Between Autism and Use of Cells From Abortions in Vaccines", Steven Ertelt, WASHINGTON, DC, LIFENEWS.COM, 4/21/10, (www).
ev11.   "Government asked to sanction foetus sale", Eugene Bingham, New Zealand Herald, May 24, 2003, (www).
ev12.   "Medicine's Holy Grail is no soft cell", Eugene Bingham, New Zealand Herald, May 17, 2003, (www).
ev13.   "Australia, Foetal tissue for overseas sale", Tony Wall, Herald Sun, June 10, 2003, (www).
ev14.   "Rubella", Emeritus Prof JE Banatvala FRCPath, Et.Al., The Lancet, Volume 363, Issue 9415, Pages 1127 - 1137, 3 April 2004, (www).

End of Life Issues

el1.     "Tube Feeding in Patients With Advanced Dementia", Drs. Finucane, Christmas, Travis, JAMA, Oct. 13, 1999, Vol. 282, No.14,1365-1370, (www).
el2.     "Dignity-Conserving Care", Harvey Max Chochinov, JAMA, May 1, 2002, 287, #17, (www) and (www).
el3.     "Do not resuscitate decisions: flogging dead horses or a dignified death?", Shah Ebrahim, BMJ, 2000;1155-56(29 April), (www).
el4.     "Sedation, alimentation, hydration, and equivocation: careful conversation about care at the end of life", Jansen LA, Et Al, Ann Intern Med., 2002; 136:845-9, (www).
el5.     "The Supreme Court and physician assisted suicide-rejecting assisted suicide but embracing euthanasia", Orentlicher D, NEJM, 1997;337:1236-9, (www).
el6.     "Canadians Euthanasia Activists Hijacking Palliative Care?", Ottawa, Apr. 12, 2001,,,
el7.     "Increased Risk of Death in Patients with Do-Not-Resuscitate Orders", Shepardson LB, Youngner SJ, Speroff T, Rosenthal GE, Dept. of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Case Western Reserve U. School of Medicine, Cleveland, Oh, USA, (www).
el8.     "Process of care and mortality of stroke patients with and without a do not resuscitate order in the West Midlands", Mohammed M, Mant J, Bentham L, Stevens A, Hussain S, UK, U. of Birmingham, UK, Sept. 10, 2005, (www).
el9.     "Scale of levels of care versus DNR orders", Vanpee D, Swine C, J. of Medical Ethics, 2004;30:351-52, (www).
el10.   "Hospital Usage of Early Do-Not-Resuscitate Orders and Outcome After Intracerebral Hemorrhage", J. Claude Hemphill, III, MD Et Al, Dept. of Neurology, U. of California, San Francisco, Calif., Sutter Health Institute for Research and Education, 1999-2000, (www).
el11.   "The Rise and Fall of the Futility Movement", Drs. Helft R., Siegler M, Lantos J, NEJM, Vol. 343:293-96, July 27, 2000, No.4, (www).
el12.   "Sedation for intractable distress in the dying", Chater S, Et Al, Palliat Med., 1998; 12:255-69, (www).
el14.   "Do patient's ethnic and social factors influence the use of do-not-resuscitate orders?", Thompson BL, Et Al, Ethnicity Did, 1999, 9:132-39, (www).
el15.   North Carolina Healthcare Power of Attorney, (www).
el16.   Advanced directives addresses for other states,(www)
el17.   "Evaluation of Prognostic Criteria for Determining Hospice Eligibility in Patients With Advanced Lung, Heart, or Liver Disease", Ellen Fox, MD, Et Al, JAMA, Nov. 3, 1999, Vol. 282, No.17, pp1638-45, (www).
el18.   "On Feeding the Dying", Daniel Callahan, The Hastings Center Report, Vol. 13, Oct, 1983.
el19.   "Responding to intractable suffering", Yanow ML, Ann Intern Med., 2000;133:560, (www).
el20.   "Images of death haunt feeding decision",Lisa Greene, St. Petersburg Times, Oct. 26, 2003, (www).
el21.   "Why we don't Starve Humans: An Interview with Dr. Chris Kahlenborn", Tim Drake,, (www).
el22.   "Slow euthanasia", Billings JA, Et Al, J Palliat Care, 1996; 12:21-30.
el23.   "Nutrition and Hydration: Moral Considerations", Statement of the Catholic Bishops of Pennsylvania, 2001, (www).
el24.   "Is Hospice going beyond end-of-life care?", Judy Roberts, National Catholic Register, 2/17/2006 (www).
el25.   "Kissing Hospice Goodbye", Sandra G. Boodman, The Washington Post, Oct. 3, 2006, (www).
el26.   "Most States Don't Require Doctors to Honor Advance Directives", Report from the Robert Powsell Center for Medical Ethics, April 15, 2005,(www).
el27.   "Wisconsin bill lets advance directives be ignored", Andis Robeznieks, American Medical News, April 5, 2004, p.18.
el28.   "More Hospitals Deny End-of-Life Care", Physicians Financial News, March 15, 2003, p.47.
el30.   "Persistent Vegetative State After Brain Damage", Bryan Jennett, MD, Fred Plum, MD, The Lancet, April 1, 1972, pp.734-37, (www).
el31.   "Misdiagnosis of the Vegetative state: retrospective study in a rehabilitation unit", Keith Andrews, Et Al, The British Medical Journal, 1996, 313:13-16 (6 July), (www).
el32.   "fMRI reveals large-scale network activation in minimally conscious patients", Schiff,N D., MD, Et Al, Neurology, Vol. 64(3), 8 Feb., 2005, pp. 514-23, (www).
el33.   "Detecting Awareness in the Vegetative State", Adrian M. Owen, MD, Et Al, Science, 9/8/06, p.1402, (www).
el34.   "Zolpidem appears an effective drug to restore brain function to some patients in then permanent vegetative state", Walley Nel, MD, Et Al, NeuroRehabilitation, 5/31/06, pp.23-28, (www)and(www).
el35.   "Practice parameters: Assessment and management of patients in the perisitent vegetative state (Summary statement)", Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology, Neurology, Vol. 45(5), May, 1995, pp.1015-18, (www).
el36.   "Persistent vegetative state and the right to die: the United States and Britain", Bryan Jennett, MD, Et Al, The British Medical Journal, Vol. 302, 25 May, 1991, pp.1256-58, (www).
el37.   "Medical Aspects of the Persistent Vegetative State-Two Parts", The Multi-Society Task Force on PVS, NEJM, Vol. 330:1572-79, June 2, 1994, No. 22, (www-Part 1)and(www-Part 2).
el38.   "Continuous deep sedation for patients nearing death in the Netherlands: descriptive study",Judith Rietjens,, (www).
el39.   "End-of-Life Practices in European Intensive Care UnitsEnd-of-Life Practices in European Intensive Care Units", Alberto Giannini, M.D., JAMA. 2003;290(22):2938-2940, (www).
el40.   "End of Life Care: The Ventilator", Paul A. Byrne, M.D., October 14, 2005, ALL, (www).
el41.   "Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy: clinical care of PEG tubes in older adults.(Long-term care)", Roche, Vivyenne, Geriatrics, November 1, 2003, (www).
el42.   "Responses Concerning Artificial Alimentation", Vatican Information Service, September 15, 2007, (www).
el43.   "Ethical Issues in End-of-Life Geriatric Care: The Approach of Three Monotheistic Religions—Judaism, Catholicism, and Islam", A. Mark Clarfield, M.D. Et.Al., American Geriatrics Society, August 2003, Volume 51, Issue 8 Pages 1053–1192, (www).
el44.   "UK Court Rules Doctors May Withdraw Life-Sustaining Food and Water",, Jul 28, 2005, (www).
el45.   "Not Letting Dad Die", Brain Caulfield, Catholic Pulse-Headline Bistro, (www).
el46.   "End-of-Life Decisions", EWTN, (www).
el47.   "Opinion 2.20 - Withholding or Withdrawing Life-Sustaining Medical Treatment", American Medical Association, (www).
el48.   "Survival Prediction in Terminally Ill Cancer Patients by Clinical Estimates, Laboratory Tests, and Self-Rated Anxiety and Depression", Stephan Gripp Et.Al., J. Clinical Oncology 2007;25:3313-3320, (www).
el49.   "Sentenced to death on the NHS", Kate Devlin, Medical Correspondent,, 02 Sep 2009, (www).
el50.   "How I helped a "terminal patient cheat death", Block, Mary Ann, Medical Economics, April 14, 1997, (www).
el51.   "Cerebral palsy patients cite positive quality of life.(Behavioral Pediatrics)", Meeting American Academy Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine, October 1, 2006, (www).
el52.   "We should Be Uneasy About Terminal Extubation", Kenneth Prager M.D.,
el53.   "Doctors face prison for denying right to die", STEVE DOUGHTY, Daily Mail, 17 November 2006, (www).
el54.   "Brain scan detects signs of awareness in vegetative-state patient", Lauran Neergaard, The Associated Press, 9/7/2006, (www).
el55.   "Study: Vegetative Brains Show Signs of Awareness", Stephanie Nano, February 04, 2010, Associated Press, (www).
el56.   "Human Dignity in the 'Vegetative' State", Richard M. Doerflinger, USCCB,
el57.   "Life Sustaining treatments and the Vegetative State", John Paul II, Saturday, 20 March 2004, (www).
el58.   "Coma woman woken by husband's 'rollicking' as doctors were about to switch off life-support machine", DailyMail, 23 February 2008,
el59.   "Husband Celebrates Miracle as 'Brain Dead' Wife Wakes Up in Hospital", NewsCore, Australia, May 11, 2011, (www).
el60.   "Brain-damaged woman speaks after 2 years", Associated Press, 5/12/2005, (www).
el61.   "Firefighter awakens from decade of silence", Reuters, May 4, 2005, (www).
el62.   "Vegetative man tells doctors ‘I’m not in pain’ via MRI communication", Eric Pfeiffer, Yahoo! News, Nov 13, 2012, (www).
el63.   "'I screamed, but there was nothing to hear': Man trapped in 23-year 'coma' reveals horror of being unable to tell doctors he was conscious", Allan Hall, DailyMail, 23 November 2009, (www).
el64.   "Boy in “Hopeless” Vegetative State Awakens and Steadily Improves", Hilary White,, Oct 10, 2006, (www).
el65.   "Colorado Woman Wakes Up After Nearly Seven Years In Coma", CBS News, March 2007, (www).
el66.   "Husband Celebrates Miracle as ‘Brain Dead’ Wife Wakes Up in Hospital", Newscore, DARWIN, Australia, (www).
el67.   "Brain-injured man speaks after 6 years", Malcolm Ritter, Associated Press, 8/1/2007, (www).
el68.   "Battle over futile care erupts in Texas", Kevin B. O'Reilly, amednews staff, May 14, 2007, (www).
el69.   "Will Your Advanced Care Directives Be followed?", ROBERT POWELL CENTER FOR MEDICAL ETHICS OF THE NATIONAL RIGHT TO LIFE COMMITTEE, MAY 2007, (www).
el70.   "Abuse of Futility—Reply", J. Randall Curtis, Et.Al., Arch Intern Med. 2001;161(1):128-130, (www).
el71.   "Wesley Smith: Futile care duty to die may be coming to a hospital near you", Wesley Smith, The Daily Caller Opinion, May 11, 2012, (www).
el72.   "Study: Doctors out of sync with cancer patients' wishes", Liz Szabo, USA TODAY, 1/22/2007,
el73.   "Palliative Options at the End of Life", Richard Letvak, MD, JAMA. 1998;279(14):1065-1067, (www).
el74.   "Emerging Ethical Issues in Palliative Care", Edmund D. Pellegrino, MD, JAMA. 1998;279(19):1521-1522, (www).
el75.   "Early palliative care lengthens survival for lung cancer patients", Kevin B. O'Reilly, amednews staff, Sept. 6, 2010, (www).
el76.   "Do-Not-Resuscitate Orders in Patients with COPD and Depression or Other Mood Disorders", Cletus U. Iwuagwu, MD, CMD, and Mukaila A. Raji, MD, MSc, Clinical Geriatrics, August 2008, (www).
el77.   "Hospice Philosophy in Late-Stage Cancer Care", Melvin J. Krant, MD, JAMA. 1981;245(10):1061-1062, (www).
el78.   "Preliminary Guide to the Charles W. Bodemer Papers 1824-1984", (www).
el79.   "The Ethics of Terminal Care", Harold Y. Vanderpool, PhD, JAMA. 1978;239(9):850-852, (www).
el80.   "Why Catholics Should Avoid Secular Living Wills", Deborah Sturm, Zenit, November 11, 2005,
el81.   "Treatment of Alzheimer Disease and Prognosis of Dementia", Kristine Yaffe, MD , JAMA. 2010;304(17):1952-1953, (www).
el82.   "Rethinking Hospice Eligibility Criteria", David J. Casarett, MD, MA, JAMA. 2011;305(10):1031-1032, (www).
el83.   "Prediction of 6-Month Survival of Nursing Home Residents With Advanced Dementia Using ADEPT vs Hospice Eligibility Guidelines", Susan L. Mitchell, MD, MPHEt.Al., JAMA. 2010;304(17):1929-1935, (www).
el84.   "Minority patients less interested in hospice care", Kevin B. O'Reilly, amednews staff, July 9, 2012, (www).
el85.   "History of Hospice Care", National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization, (www).
el86.   "Pro-life hospice care", Matt C. Abbott, RenewAmerica, April 2, 2011, (www).
el87.   "The Evolution of Advance Directives", Douglas B. White, MD, MAS; Robert M. Arnold, MD, JAMA. 2011;306(13):1485-1486, (www).
el89.   "Regional Variation in the Association Between Advance Directives and End-of-Life Medicare Expenditures", Lauren Hersch Nicholas, PhD, MPP Et.Al., JAMA. 2011;306(13):1447-1453, (www).
el90.   "Principles for allocation of scarce medical interventions", Govind Persad BS a, Alan Wertheimer PhD a, Ezekiel J Emanuel MD, The Lancet, Volume 373, Issue 9661, Pages 423 - 431, 31 January 2009, (www).
el91.   "Hospice care delivers Hemlock nightcap", Debra Vinnedge, Children of God for Life,, (www).
el92.   "Veterans Administration’s ‘Death Book’", Jim Towey, Wall Street Journal, August 18,2009, (www).
el93.   "When living wills become health hazards", Ferdinando L, Mirarchi, DO, Medical Economics, Dec. 6, 2006, (www).
el94.   "Five Wishes", (www).
el95.   "Critique of Five Wishes", unfortunately-unavailable without subscription, (www).
el96.   "Health care Proxy", EWTN, National Catholic Bioethics Center, (www).
el97.   "Advance Directives", EWTN, National Catholic Bioethics Center, (www).
el98.   "Advance Directives-Living Wills-Durable Power of Attorney", Patient's Rights Council, (www).
el99.   "Controversies about brain death", Franklin G. Miller, PhD; Robert D. Truog, MD, JAMA. 2009;302(4):380-382, (www).
el100"To Peg or not to Peg", Cervo, Frank A.; Bryan, Leslie; Farber, Sharon, Geriatrics, June 1, 2006, (www).
el101"Severed Trust", American Program Bureau, (www).
el102"Study: “Significant Number” of Patients Wrongly Diagnosed as in “Vegetative” State", Dave Andrusko, Washington, DC,, 4/17/14, (www).
el103"Diagnostic precision of PET imaging and functional MRI in disorders of consciousness: a clinical validation study", Steven Laureys PhD,Et.Al, The Lancet, Early Online Publication, 16 April 2014, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60042-8, (www).


eu1.     "Views on Physician-assisted Suicide", Family Practice News, 4/1/2005, (www).
eu2.     "Medical Science Under Dictatorship", Alexander L., NEJM, 241:39-47, 1949, (www).
eu3.     "Chain of Suicide clinics planned", Daniel Foggo, The Sunday Times, 4/16/2006, (www).
eu4.     "Responding to Requests for Physician-Assisted Suicide", Paul B. Bascom MD, Susan W. Tolle MD, JAMA, July 3, 2002, Vol. 288, No.1, pp.91-98, (www).
eu5.     "Physician-Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia in the Netherlands-Lessons from the Dutch", Herbert Hendin MD, JAMA, June 4, 1997, No. 21, pp. 1720-22, (www).
eu6.     "Terminal Sedation: An Acceptable Exit Strategy?", Muriel R. Gillick, MD, Annals of Internal Medicine, August 3, 2004, Vol. 141, Issue 3, pp.236-237, (www).
eu7.     "Physician reports of terminal sedation without hydration or nutrition for patients nearing death in the Netherlands", Rietjens JA, Et Al, Ann Intern Med., 2004;141:178-85, (www).
eu8.     "Doctor, Thou Shall Not Kill", Watson R.A., Linacre Quarterly, 65:23-47, 1998,
eu9.     "Physician-Assisted Suicide: reflection on Oregon's First Case", Hendin H., Foley K., White M., Issues Law Med 14:243, 1998, (www).
eu10.   "Terminal sedation, self-starvation, and orchestrating the end of life", Loewy EH, Arch Intern Med., 2001;161:329-32, (www).
eu11.   "Legalized physician-assisted suicide in Oregon--the first year's experience", Chin A.E., Hedberg K., Higginson G.K., et al, NEJM, 34:577,1999, (www).
eu12.   "Voluntary euthanasia under control? Further empirical evidence from the Netherlands", Jochemsen H., Keown J., J. Med Ethics 25:16, 1999, (www).
eu13.   "Doctors Must Not Kill", Pellegrino E MD, J. JAMA. 1988 Apr 8;259(14):2139-40., (www).
eu14.   "Euthanasia in Holland - The Truth!", Remmelink Report, International Task Force on Euthanasia and Assited Suicide, (www) .
eu15.   "Assisted Dying for the Terminally Ill Bill, Vol. II: Evidence", House of Lord's Report, 4/4/05,pp.334-347, (www).
eu16.   "Humanity is dwtermined by how we care for the helpless, not how we kill them", David Ramsey, M.D., Asheville Citizen-/times, Guest Commentary, A11, May 15, 2002.
eu17.   "Epidemic: Euthanasia Deaths Increase 25 Percent in Belgium", Alex Schadenberg, Brussels, Belgium,, 3/3/13, (www).
eu18.   "Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide in the Netherlands", Herbert Hendon M.D., American Foundation for Suicide Prevention, New York, NY 10005, N Engl J Med 1997; 336:1385-1387May 8, 1997, (www).
eu19.   "Euthanasia in the Netherlands - down the slippery slope ?", Raanan Gillon-Imperial College School ofMedicine, University ofLondon, Journal of Medical Ethics 1999;25:3-4, (www).
eu21.   "Active Euthanasia in the Netherlands", M.A.M. de Wachter, PhD., JAMA. 1989;262(23):3316-3319, (www).
eu22.   "Euthanasia regularly practiced in Colombia", Associated Press, 7/31/2005, NBCNews, (www).
eu24.   "M.D.-assisted death acceptable when hospice fails, expert says", Jody A. Charnow, Ammerican Academy Of Family Physicians, Medical GTribune, Oct. 9, 1997.
eu25.   "Euthanasia: An Unbiased Decision?", MD Shimon M. Glick, The American Journal Of Medicine, March 1997, Vol. 102 PP. 294-96., (www).
eu26.   "Dutch minister favours suicide pill",, April 14, 2001, (www).
eu27.   "Report: Nazis used hospitals for killings", 2003-10-01 , (www).
eu28.   "Catholic Doctors Criticize Nonconsensual Euthanasia of Children in Holland", September 03, 2004 , (www).
eu29.   "British Doctors Use Euthanasia to Kill Nearly 3,000 Patients", Steven Ertelt, WASHINGTON, DC, LIFENEWS.COM, 1/17/06, (www).
eu30.   "Man Set to Be Euthanized Regains Consciousness", Doug Huntington, Christian Post Reporter, June 28, 2007, (www).
eu31.   "Death's door in the Netherlands", Cal Thomas, Jewish World Review, April 18, 2001, (www).
eu32.   "I helped patients die, says doctor cleared of murder",, Saturday 19 June 2010, (www).
eu33.   "Depression Care Effort Brings Dramatic Drop in Large HMO Population’s Suicide Rate", Tracy Hampton, PhD, JAMA. 2010;303(19):1903-1905, (www).
eu34.   "Infant Euthanasia Practiced in North Korea on Disabled Children", Hilary White, Lifesite News, Oct. 16, 2006, (www).
eu35.   "Quebec government will propose bill to legalize euthanasia by summer", Patrick B. Craine, Wed Jan 16, 2013, (www).
eu36.   "Doctors admit to practising 'slow euthanasia' on terminally-ill patients", Daniel Martin, DailyMail, 28 October 2009, (www).
eu37.   "An Oxymoron and an unlicensed doctor"-letter to the editor on Dr. Jack Kevorkian, David Ramsey, M.D., Hospital Medicine, May 1999, pp. 13-14.
eu38.   "DNR: Did Helen still want to die?", Christie Murphy, DO, Medical Economics, May 24, 2002, (www).
eu39.   "Patient-Physician Discussions About Physician-Assisted Suicide", Lauris C. Kaldjian, MD, JAMA. 2001;286(7):788-789,
eu40.   "Is physician-assisted suicide ever acceptable?"-It's never acceptable, reply by Kathleen Foley, M.D.,, June 1, 2007, (www).
eu41.   "An assisted suicide kills more than one victim", Jose A. Bufill, M.D., The Brass Tack,
eu42.   "Zurich hospital rejects assisted suicide",, March 8, 2007, (www).
eu43.   "Swiss hospital allows assisted suicide January 03, 2006", Catholic World News, (www).
eu44.   "Study Shows Oregon Assisted Suicides Not Result of Pain or Suffering", Jennifer Popik, J.D., NRL News, Page 21, April 2008, Volume 35, Issue 4, (www).
eu45.   "Euthanasia Advocate Develops Homemade Suicide Pill to Kill Patients", Steven Ertelt, WASHINGTON, DC, LIFENEWS.COM, 9/11/06, (www).
eu46.   "Death and Dignity — A Case of Individualized Decision Making", Timothy E. Quill, M.D., N Engl J Med March 7, 1991; 324:691-694, (www).
eu47.   "Old Age and New Policy", Daniel Callahan, JAMA Feb. 10, 1989, Vol. 261, No. 6, pp. 905-906, (www).
eu48.   "AMA-Ethics Opinion 2.211-Physician-Assisted Suicide", (www).
eu49.   "Belgium Parliament passes law allowing children to be euthanized", Peter Baklinski, LifeSiteNews, Thu Feb 13, 2014, (www).

In-Vitro Fertilization

iv1.     "Birth defects more common in IVF babies", Fox News, 4/20/2012, (www).
iv2.     "Assisted Reproductive Technologies are Anti-Woman", Marie Anderson, M.D., FACOG and John Bruchalski, M.D., USCCB, Conf. Pro-life Activities, (www).
iv3.     "Women's Health: Consequences of Human Egg Donation", Dr. Pia de Solenni, testimony before the Massachusetts State Legislature's Joint Commitee on Economic Development and Emerging Technologies, Feb. 16, 2005,(www).
iv4.     “Assisted Reproductive Technology Surveillance-United States, 2000”, Wright, V.C. et al., Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Aug. 29, 2003; vol. 52, no. ss-9, (www).
iv5.     "IVF Linked To Birth Defects", BBC News, Tuesday, 12 September, 2000, (www).
iv6.     Side effects of Clomid include congenital defects, mood swings, breast tenderness, bloating, stomach pain, severe dizziness, and blurred vision,, Physician’s Desk Reference (PDR), (www).
iv7.     "Characteristics Relating to Ovarian Cancer Risk: Collaborative Analysis of 12 US Case-Control Studies: I. Methods", Whitmore, Et Al, American Journal of Epidemiology, 136: 1175-1220, 1992, (www).
iv8.     "Infertility drugs and the risk of breast cancer: findings from the National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development Women’s Contraceptive and Reproductive Experiences", Burkman, Ronald et al., Fertility and Sterility. Study, Vol. 79, No. 4, 844-851, April 2003, (www).
iv9.     Lupron is a category X medication-associated with proven fetal abnormalities,, Physicians Desk Reference (PDR), (www).
iv10.   "Association of In Vitro Fertilization with Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome and Epigenetic Alterations of LIT1 and H19", Debaun, Et Al, American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:156-160, 2003, (www).
iv11.   “Iatrogenic Multiple Pregnancy: Clinical Implications”, Blickenstein I., Keith L.G., (eds.), London: Parthenon Publishing, 2000, (www).
iv12.   "High rates of embryo wastage with use of assisted reproductive technology: a look at the trends between 1995 and 2001 in the United States", Patrizio, Pasquale, M.D., Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 84, No. 2, 325-330 (August 2005), (www).
iv13.   “Low and Very Low Birth Weight Infants Conceived with Use of Assisted Reproductive Technology”, Schieve, Laura A. Ph D. et al., NEJM, Vol. 346:731-737, N0. 10, March 7, 2002, (www).
iv14.   “The Risk of Major Birth Defects after Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection and in Vitro Fertilization”, Hansen, Michele, M.P.H. et al., NEJM, Vol. 346:725-730, No. 10, March 7, 2002, (www).
iv15.   “Researchers ponder best use of 400,000 stored embryos”, Robeznieks, Andis,, June 14, 2003, pp. 15-16, (www).
iv16.   "Donated Eggs Bring Higher Miscarriage Risk", Cha, SunHwa, M.D., Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine study, reported Fox News, June 22, 2005, (www).
iv17.   ‘British Court: in Vitro Embryo for Cure OK’, reported by Outside The Beltway, April 29, 2005, (www).
iv18.   “Cryopreserved Embryos in the United States and Their Availability for Research”, Hoffman, David I., M.D. et al., Fertility and Sterility, May, 2003, (www).
iv19.    “In Vitro Fertilization Undermines Human Dignity”,Brown, Judie, Celebrate Life, Oct. 12, 2005, (www).
iv20.   “Conception For Donation”, Fost, Norman C., M.D., MPH, JAMA, May 5, 2004, Vol. 291, No. 17, pp. 2125-2126, (www).
iv21.   "Neurological sequelae in children born after in-vitro fertilisation: a population-based study", Dr B Strömberg MD, Et.Al., The Lancet, Volume 359, Issue 9305, Pages 461 - 465, 9 February 2002, (www).
iv22.   "Higher rate of major birth defects seen in ART infants: retrospective cohort study: attributed to parents' underlying infertility", Dr. Christine Olson, annual meeting of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, 2003,(www).
iv23.   "A Law's Fetal Flaw", Boyce, Nell, July 2003, U.S. News and World Report; 7/21/2003, Vol. 135 Issue 2, p48, (www).
iv24.   "Increase in Egg Donors Raises Concerns", MARTHA IRVINE, The Washington Post, The Associated Press, Monday, February 19, 2007, (www).
iv25.   "State plan to pay for eggs used in research called 'grossly unethical'", Catholic News Service, Jun-19-2009, (www).
iv26.   "Woman sells her eggs on net to pay off £15,000 credit card debts", DailyMail, Thursday, November 02, 2006, (www).
iv27.   "Debate arises over paying for eggs for research", Kevin B. O'Reilly, amednews, June 26, 2006, (www).
iv28.   "Human Eggs As Currency?", Terry Vanderheyden,, Thu Jul 27, 2006, (www).
iv29.   "IVF Treatment Linked to Ovarian Cancer Risk", Sheela Philomena, AM Cancer News, October 27, 2011 at 10:23, (www).
iv30.   "IVF Appears to Increase Risk of Ovarian Cancer", JANE SALODOF MACNEIL, FamilyPracticenews, 3/1/2009, (www).
iv31.   "Effect of age on decisions about the numbers of embryos to transfer in assisted conception: a prospective study", Dr. Nelson, Dr. Lawlor, The Lancet, Volume 379, Issue 9815, Pages 521 - 527, 11 February 2012, (www).
iv32.   "The Immorality of In vitro Fertilization", John B. Shea, M.D., Canadian Catholic Bioethics Institute, The Lifetree, (www).
iv33.   "Higher rate of major birth defects seen in ART infants: retrospective cohort study: attributed to parents' underlying infertility.", The Free Library, (www).
iv34.   "Association of In Vitro Fertilization with Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome and Epigenetic Alterations of LIT1 and H19", Dr. Andrew Feinberg, Et.Al., Am J Hum Genet. 2003 January; 72(1): 156–160, (www).
iv35.   "Study Findings Suggest over 5.7 Million Embryonic Children Have Died During IVF",, Sep 09, 2005, (www).
iv36.   "Assisted Reproductive Technology and Trends in Low Birthweight—Massachusetts, 1997-2004-'ART disproportionately contributed'", from the CDC, JAMA. 2009;301(21):2205-2206, (www).
iv37.   "THE HIDDEN DANGERS OF IN VITRO FERTILIZATION", Bradley Mattes, MBS, Life Issues Institute-Connector, (www).
iv38.   "Testing embryos and ethics: Where do we draw the line?", Kevin B. O'Reilly, amednews, Feb. 26, 2007, (www).
iv39.   "In Vitro Fertilization May Increase Breast Cancer Risk in Predisposed", KATE JOHNSON, Family Practice News, 12/1/2005, (www).
iv40.   "Ovarian Tumors May Develop Years After Fertility Therapy", Healthday, October 27, 2011, (www).
iv41.   "New Documentary Eggsploitation Reveals the Infertility Industry's Dirty Little Secret", The Center for Bioethics and Culture Network, 2010, The Free Library, (www).
iv42.   "IVF may raise risk of diabetes, hypertension and cancer in later life", Ian Sample, San Diego,, (www).
iv43.   "The Limits Of Science", Chritine Gorman, Time, Monday, Apr. 15, 2002, (www).
iv44.   "Thinking About Donating Your Eggs? Think Again", Jennifer Lahl, The Center for Bioethics and Culture, (www).
iv45.   "A British family has been allowed to use IVF to create a child whose cells could cure a sick sibling", BBC News, 26 February, 2002, (www).
iv46.   "Three-person IVF moves closer in UK", James Gallagher, Health and science reporter, BBC News, 3/21/2013, (www).
iv47.   "Does In Vitro Fertilization Cause Premature Birth?", Cheryl Bird, RN, Updated June 29, 2013, preemies, (www).
iv48.   "Rescuing Frozen Embryos", E. Christian Brugger, March 17, 2010, (www).
iv49.   "World's number of IVF and ICSI babies has now reached a calculated total of 5 million", European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology, July 2, 2012, (www).

Natural Family Planning

nf1.     "Timing of Sexual Intercourse in Relation to Ovulation — Effects on the Probability of Conception, Survival of the Pregnancy, and Sex of the Baby", Allen J. Wilcox, M.D., Ph.D. Et.Al., N Engl J Med 1995; 333:1517-1521, December 7, 1995, (www).
nf2.     "Family Planning, Naturally NFP-only physicians tell their stories", Stephen Vincent National Catholic Reporter, March 12-16, 2006, (www).
nf3.     "Standards for Diocesan Natural Family Planning Ministry", USCCB, (www).
nf4.     "The State of NaProTechnology", Chuck Weber, The Catholic World Report, Feb 2011, (www).
nf5.     "NaProTechnology-the contemporary approach to women's healthcare", (www).
nf6.     "Creighton Model NaProEducation Technology for Avoiding Pregnancy: Use Effectiveness", Thomas W. Hilgers, M.D., and Joseph B. Stanford, M.D., M.S.P.H., J Reprod Med 1998;43:495-502, (www).
nf7.     "The modified mucus method in India.", Dorairaj K., Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1991 Dec;165(6 Pt 2):2066-7., (www).
nf8.     "'Natural family planning': effective birth control supported by the Catholic Church.", R E Ryder, BMJ 1993;307:723, (www).
nf9.     "Natural Family Planning Method As Effective As Contraceptive Pill, New Research Finds", ScienceDaily, Feb. 21, 2007, (www).
nf10.   "Pregnancy Probabilities During Use of the Creighton Model Fertility Care System", Margaret P. Howard, CNFPE; Joseph B. Stanford, MD, MSPH , Arch Fam Med. 1999;8:391-402. , (www).
nf11.   "The effectiveness of a fertility awareness based method to avoid pregnancy in relation to a couple's sexual behaviour during the fertile time: a prospective longitudinal study", P. Frank-Herrmann Et.Al.,Human Reproduction, Volume 22, Issue 5, Pp. 1310-1319., (www).
nf12.   "Nfp Pioneers", Christopher H. Owen, Family Foundations, CCL, July/August 2006.
nf13.   "Natural Family Planning", Institue for Reproductive Health, Georgetown U., (www).
nf15.   "Why Use Natural Family Planning", Jason Adams, Called to Give Life, One More Soul, (www).
nf16.   "Solving The Puzzle Of Natural Family Planning", Charlotte Hayes, Crisis, 2001,, (www).
nf17.   "Agents of Change", Chuck Weber, The Catholic World Report, April 2005, Catholic/, (www).
nf18.   "NFP, Safe, Healthy, Effective", The Couple to Couple League,, (www).
nf19.   "Mobile Fertility Tracking-CycleProGo", Couple to Couple League, (www).
nf20.   "Taking Charge of Your Fertility", Toni Weschler, MPH,,
nf21.   "The Practice of Natural Family Planning Versus the Use of Artificial Birth Control: Family, Sexual and Moral Issues", Mercedes Arzu Wilson,,, (www).
nf22.   "The Natural Family Planning Information Site", (www).
nf23.   "The Effectiveness of Natural Family Planning", Thomas W. McGovern, M.D., adapted from Art of Natural Family Planning-Chapter 13, 1996.
nf24.   "Use of the Billings Ovulation Method", Hanna Klaaus, M.D. Et Al., Ethics and Medics, Feb 2002.
nf25.   "Ovulation Discovery Nothing New Say Top Natural Family Planning Experts", Billings Ovulation Method,, Jul 09, 2003, (www).
nf26.   "Birth Control and NFP: What's the Difference?", Father Frank Pavone, Priests for Life, (www).
nf27.   "Natural Family Planning", Institute for Reproductive Health Georgetown University, (www).
nf28.   "Natural Family Planning", Chapter 22, The Facts Of Life, Human Life International, (www).
nf29.   "The Importance of Fertility Awareness in the assessment of a Woman's Health", Pilar Vigil, M.D., Ph.D Et.Al., Pontifica University Catolica de Chile, Santiago, Chile, Linacre Quarterly, Catholic Medical Association, November, 2012, (www).
nf30.   "New research shows effectiveness of natural family planning method", Catholic News Agency (CNC), London, England, Mar 1, 2007, (www).

Organ Donation-Transplantation

od1.     "Belgian Doctors Boast of Harvesting Organs After Euthanasia", Wesley J. Smith, Washington, DC,, 6/10/11, (www).
od2.     "Organ Harvesting Before “Brain-Death” Increasingly Common, Concerned Doctors Warn", Gudrun Schultz,, Mar 21, 2007, (www).
od3.     "Colorado death ruling chills transplant community", Andis Robeznieks, AMEDNEWS.Com, Oct. 25, 2004, (www).
od4.     "Consent for Organ Donation — Balancing Conflicting Ethical Obligations", Robert D. Truog, M.D., N Engl J Med 2008; 358:1209-1211, (www).
od5.     "Donation after cardiocirculatory death: a call for a moratorium pending full public disclosure and fully informed consent", Ari R Joffe Et.Al., Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 2011, 6:17, (www).
od6.     "The Morality of Organ Transplants-Criteria for Donors, Living and Dead",, June 08, 2011, (www).
od7.     "Death, Dying, and Organ Transplantation: Reconstructing Medical Ethics at the End of Life", Andrew R. Barnosky, DO, MPH, JAMA. 2012;307(16):1754-1755, (www).
od8.     "The Ethics of Organ Transplantation", Armand H. Matheny Antommaria, MD, PhD, JAMA. 2012;308(14):1482-1483, (www).
od9.     "The Erosion of Ethics in Organ Transplantation",, November 14, 2012, (www).
od10.   "Just Before Organ Harvesting, Comatose Patient Recovers", STEVE WEATHERBE, National Catholic Register, 11/15/2012, (www).
od11.   "Religious groups oppose Maryland organ donation bill", Andy Brownfield, The Washington Examiner, January 31, 2013, (www).
od12.   "Executed prisoners are main source of Chinese organ donations", Tania Branigan in Beijing, The Guardian, Wednesday 26 August 2009, (www).
od13.   "Vindication of criticisms of organ donation", Steve Jalsevac, Nov 03, 2011, LifeSiteNews, (www).
od14.   "A Definition of Irreversible Coma", Report of the Ad Hoc Committee of the Harvard Medical School to Examine the Definition of Brain Death", (www).
od15.   "The Dead Donor Rule and Organ Transplantation", Robert D. Truog, M.D., and Franklin G. Miller, Ph.D., N Engl J Med 2008; 359:674-675August 14, 2008, (www).
od16.   "Ethical, Psychosocial, and Public Policy Implications of Procuring Organs From Non—Heart-Beating Cadaver Donors", Stuart J. Youngner, MD, Et. Al., JAMA. 1993;269(21):2769-2774, (www).
od17.   "The Dead Donor Rule", John A. Robertson, "The Dead Donor Rule," Hastings Center Report 29, no. 6 (1999): 6-14, (www).
od18.   "Catholic Teaching regarding the Legitimacy of Neurological Criteria for the Determination of Death ", John M. Haas, PhD, STL, KM, 2011 edition of the National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly published by the National Catholic Bioethics Center, (www).
od19.   "Ethical Issues in the Procurement of Organs Following Cardiac Death: The Pittsburgh Protocol", AMA Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs, (www).
od20.   "Donor after Cardiac Death: What Is the Christian’s Response?", Ferdinand D. Yates Jr., MD, MA, 02/02/2007, (www).
od21.   "Non-Heart-Beating Organ Donation", Nancy Valko, RN, December 07, Voices: Women for Faith and Family, (www).
od23.   "Redefining Death as a Way to Procure More Vital Organs: A Response", Rev. John Tuohey, Ph.D., Director, Providence Center for Health Care Ethics, Providence St. Vincent Medical Center, Portland, OR, (www).
od24.   "Non-Heart-Beating Organ Transplantation Medical and Ethical Issues in Procurement", Roger Herdman, Study Director, John T. Potts, Principal Investigator, INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE, (www).
od25.   "Shock: requiring death before organ donation is unnecessary, say experts", Kathleen Gilbert, Lifesite News, Thu Nov 03, 2011, (www).
od26.   "Donation After Circulatory Death: Burying the Dead Donor Rule", David Rodríguez-Ariasa, Maxwell J. Smithb and Neil M. Lazarc, The American Journal of Bioethics,Volume 11, Issue 8, 2011, pages 36-43, (www).
od27.   "Families of donors misled on death: MDs", Tom Blackwell, National Post, Tuesday, Sept. 14, 2010, (www).
od28.   "Woman declared 'dead' awakens just before doctors harvest her organs",, July 2013, (www).

Population Control

pc1.     “UN Report Challenges Population Bomb Theory”,(www).
pc2.     "Deaths outnumber births in third of counties", Haya El Nasser, USA TODAY, 1/2/2008, (www).
pc3.     "Russian Duma Drafts Bill to Cut Abortions Citing Underpopulation", Steven Ertelt, Moscow, Russia,, 4/25/11, (www).
pc4.  "UN Begins to Consider That The 'Population Explosion' is Over", Report of a meeting of the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the UN 2002, EWTN News, 3/14/02, (www).
pc5.     "How the UN is Exploiting the Population Issue", Ellen Lukas, Catholicity, September 2003, (www).
pc6.     "The empty Cradle: How Falling Birthrates Threaten World Prosperity and What to do About It", Phillip Longman, The New America Foundation, August 22, 2004, (www).
pc7.     "Debt and the Birth Dearth", Jordan Ballor, Acton Institute, March 30, 2011, (www).
pc8.     "Baby Gap: Germany's Birth Rate Hits Historic Low", Tristana Moore, Time, Berlin, May 23, 2010, (www).
pc9.     "Nearly 1 in 5 older women are going childless", Sharon Jayson, USA TODAY, 6/25/2010, (www).
pc10.   "Over Half of Italian Families Childless: Report", Hilary White, LifeSiteNews, 3/24/2010, (www).
pc11.   "7,000 Unborn Girls Die From Sex-Selection Abortion Daily in India", Gudrun Schultz,, Dec 14, 2006, (www).
pc12.   "India has killed 10 mln girls in 20 years - Renuka Chowdhury", Palash Kumar, Dec 14, 2006, (www).
pc13.   "Russian Abortion Killing and Sterilizing Millions; Demographic Collapse Likely to be Worse than Prev",, Tue Apr 12, 2005, (www).
pc14.   "A world without children a result of worldwide 'demographic death spiral'",Ian Hunter,, Apr 05, 2007, (www).
pc15.   "Japan in the Death Spiral", Brian Clowes, Life Issues Institue, November 16, 2007, (www).
pc16.   "Vatican Cardinal: 'We are realizing the worst prophecies of aging and demographic implosion'",, Jan 31, 2006, (www).
pc17.   "The liberal baby bust", Phillip Longman, USA Today, 3/13/2006, (www).
pc18.   "The Fizzling Population Bomb",, March 12, 2005, (www).
pc19.   "Unlike the "Population Bomb," This One Is for Real",, February 23, 2002, (www).
pc20.   "The Population Dud", AUSTIN RUSE, The Catholic World Report, May 2002, (www).
pc21.   "The Population Bomb That Fizzled", CELESTE MCGOVERN, National Catholic Register, May, 2000, (www).
pc22.   "A childless culture", Anne Marie Owens, National Post February 20, 2006, (www).
pc23.   "Let's Have More Babies!", Paul Johnson,, 04.17.06, (www).
pc24.   "Dying for growth", Jim Yong Kim, Et.Al., (www).
pc25.   "Europe’s ‘baby bust’ signals major change", David R. Sands, The Washington Times, Nov. 24, 2005, (www).
pc27.   "Mexico’s population keeps growing, but at a slower pace", Geo-Mexico, (www).
pc28.   "Western culture: Is it death by fertility rate?", PETER WORTHINGTON, Toronto Sun, December 10, 2006, (www).
pc29.   "U.S. Birth Rate Hits New Low", 29 November 2012, (www).
pc30.   "Low Fertility and Low Economic Growth", Father John Flynn, LC,, October 09, 2011, (www).
pc31.   "Widespread male infertility sweeping the globe", Ethan A. Huff, NaturalNews, (www).
pc32.   "French sperm count 'falls by a third'", Anna--Marie Lever, BBC News, Dec 4 2012, (www).
pc33.   "Baby bust: U.S. births at record low", By Annalyn Kurtz, CNNMoney,, m, (www).

Stem Cells-General

sg1.     "Embryonic Stem Cell Fairy Tales", Jean Swenson, July 27, 2005, (www).
sg2.     "What is apoptosis and why is it important?", A. Renehan, C. Booth, C. Pott, BMJ USA, Vol. 1, June 23,2001, pp. 466-68, (www).
sg3.     "Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation", Perumbeli MD, Medscape Reference, (www).
sg4.     "Stem Cells without Embryos", Reverend Tadeusz Pacholczyk, Catholic Education Resource Center, (www).
sg5.     "Scientists at Embryonic Stem Cell Research Mtg. Admit Failure", Steven Ertelt, Editor, June 23, 2005,(www) .
sg6.     "How to talk to Democrats about Embryonic Stem Cell Research", Eric Pavlat, Crisis, Vol. 24, No. 7, Sept. 2006, (www).
sg7.     "Stem Cell Research, Cloning and Human Embryos", Red Lane Baptist Church, (www).
sg8.     "Adult Stem Cells Heal Fractures", Matthew L. Jimenez, MD, AMA News 4/10/06, (www).
sg9.     "Reprogramming complicates stem cell debate", Alan Boyle, MSNBC, August 10, 2005, (www).
sg10.   "The Ethics of Embryonic Stem Cells--Now and Forever, Cells Without End:", Eric Juengst, PhD, Michael Fossel, PhD, JAMA, Dec. 27, 2000, Vol. 284, No. 24, pp. 3180-84, (www).
sg11.   "Studies: Cord Blood Works Vs. Leukemia", "Outcomes after Transplantation of Cord Blood or Bone Marrow from Unrelated Donors in Adults with Leukemia", NEJM, Nov. 25, 2004, (www).
sg12.   "Stem cells reverse blindness caused by burns", ALICIA CHANG, AP Science Writer,, Jun 23, 2010, (www).
sg13.   "Stem cells help regrow heart tissue in small study", Liz Szabo, USA TODAY, 2/13/2012, (www).
sg14.   "Stem Cell Sources", (www).
sg15.   "Guide to Stem Cells", (www).
sg16.   "Scientists grow mice heart muscle strip that beats",, Oct 15, 2009, (www).
sg17.   "Stem Cell Injection Beats Collagen for Urinary Incontinence (adult autologous stem cells)", PATRICE WENDLING,, 15 January 2007, (www).
sg18.   "Lab Grows Bladders From Cells of Patients", Jeff Donn, The Associated Press, April 4, 2006, (www).
sg19.   "2-year-old girl gets windpipe made from stem cells", Lindsey Tanner, Associated Press, Usa Today, April 30, 2013, (www).
sg20.   "Doctors transplant windpipe with stem cells", AP News, Usa Today, 11/20/2008, (www).
sg21.   "Scientists turn stem cells into neurons", Paul Elias, Associated Press, 1/31/2005, USA Today, (www).
sg22.   "Stem Cells May Repair Damage From MS", ALEX DOMINGUEZ, Associated Press Writer, April 17, 2003,
sg23.   "Stem cells promising for Crohn's-related fistulas.(Digestive Disorders)", Ault, Alicia, Family Practice News, February 15, 2005, (www).
sg24.   "Reprogramming complicates stem cell debate", Alan Boyle Science editor, MSNBC.COM, 8/10/2005 , (www).
sg25.   "Healing not hype: Cord blood stem cell technology", Peter Hollands, Celebrate Life, March-April 2007, (www).
sg26.   "AMNIOTIC CELLS SHOW PROMISE FOR FETAL TISSUE ENGINEERING", Mike Mitka, JAMA. 2001;286(17):2081-2083, (www).
sg27.   "Study: Amniotic Fluid Yields Stem Cells", Paul Elias, The Associated Press, 08 January 2007, (www).
sg28.   "Emerging Stem Cell Therapies", Supplement to the Journal of Family Practice, Oct. 2006, (www).
sg29.   "Stem Cells: New Hope on the Horizon", Julie Marks, Nov. 15 2006, Ivanhoe Health, (www).
sg30.   "Embryonic Stem Cell Research Causes Tumors, New Study Shows", Steven Ertelt, WASHINGTON, DC, LIFENEWS.COM, 10/23/06, (www).
sg31.   "Report: Fetal stem cells trigger tumors in ill boy", Lauran Neergaard, 2/17/2009, (www).
sg32.   "Umbilical Cord Blood Storaage Options", (www), and (www), and (www), and (www).
sg33.   "FSU engineering professor growing bone in a lab", Barry Ray, Florida State Times, April-/May 2006, (www).
sg34.   "'Cost too high' for embryonic stem-cell research, Senate panel told", Nancy Frazier O'Brien, Catholic News Service, 10/1/2004, (www).
sg35.   "Embryonic stem cell fairy tales", Jean Swenson , Minnesota Daily, July 27, 2005, (www).
sg36.   "Nature Issues Corrections on Misleading Embryonic Stem Cell Research Study", Steven Ertelt, Editor, August 31, 2006, (www).
sg37.   "Adult stem cell treatments", Do No Harm-fact sheet, (www).
sg38.   "Geron halting stem cell research, laying off staff", Linda A. Johnson, Associated Press, 11/15/2011, (www).
sg39.   "And after stem cells, what?", Cal Thomas, July 5, 2001, (www).
sg40.   "Why are Catholics Praising the Nobel Prize Stem Cell Technology?", Stacy Trasancos, The American Catholic, October 15th, 2012, (www).
sg41.   "Stem-cell Science When medicine meets moral philosophy", Jonathan Shaw, Harvard Magazine, July-August, 2004, pp.37,38, (www).
sg42.   "Peer Reviewed References of Adult Stem Cell Treatments",, (www).

Stem Cells-Cloning

sc1.     "The Perils of Cloning", Alice Park, Time Magazine, July 2, 2006, (www).
sc2.     "On behalf of the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops before the President's Council on Bioethics",Subject: Embryo Research and Related Issues, Richard M. Doerflinger,M.A., Ethics and Medics, June 12, 2003, (www).
sc3.     "Scientists at California University Also Engaging in human Cloning for Research", Steven Ertelt,, June 7, 2006,(www).
sc4.     "Critics slam new cloning research", Sharon Begley, Reuters, NEW YORK, May 15, 2013, (www).
sc5.     "Scientists report first success in cloning human stem cells", Alice Park,, May 15, 2013, (www).
sc6.     "Stanford announces plans to clone human embryos", Elizabeth Wiese, Usa Today, 12/10/2002 , (www).
sc7.     "Maverick medic reveals details of baby cloning experiment", David Adam,, 20 July 2006, (www).
sc8.     "American Scientists Announce Intent to Clone Humans for Research", Mark Adams, Culture of Life Foundation, April 19, 2006,
sc9.     "Scientists use sperm-like cells to make mice", Malcolm Ritter, Associated Press, 7/11/2006, (www).
sc10.   "Shorter Life Span for Cloned Mice", The World in Medicine, JAMA. 2002;287(10):1255, (www).
sc11.   "Early death of mice cloned from somatic cells", Narumi Ogonuki, Et.Al., Nature Genetics 30, 253 - 254 (2002), (www).
sc12.   "Cloned Pigs Produce Healthy Pork?", Amitabh Avasthi, National Geographic News, March 27, 2006, (www).
sc13.   "Death Sentence on Cloning", Dr. Mae-Wan Ho and Prof. Joe Cummins, The Institute of Science in Society, (www).
sc14.   "The Stem Cell Debate: Are Parthenogenic Human Embryos a Solution?", Nancy Jones, The Center for Bioethics and Human Dignity, 06/02/2003, (www).
sc15.   "Why not cloning?"-the 'unnatural fruit' from abortion, Cal Thomas, 1/2/2003, (www).
sc16.   "Human pluripotent stem cells without human cloning",, 11/21/2007, (www).
sc17.   "Dolly creator Prof Ian Wilmut shuns cloning", Roger Highfield, UK Telegraph, November 16th, 2007, (www).
sc18.   "Scientists in California say they have produced embryos that are clones of two men using skin cells in step toward stem cell goal", Associated Press, 1/17/2008, (www).
sc19.   "Whole mice created from skin cells", Seth Borenstein Associated Press,, 7/23/2009, (www).
sc20.   "Human Cloning", Dianne N. Irving, M.A., Ph.D., American Life League, (www).
sc21.   "In medical breakthrough, scientists convert human skin cells into embryonic stem cells", Loren Grush, Fox/, May 15, 2013, (www).

Stem Cells-Transhumanism

st1.     "Mythical 'Chimera' Was Associated With Disaster Warning of Genetic Meddling", Michael H. Brown,, www.
st2.     "Animal-Human Hybrids Spark Controversy", Maryann Mott, National Geographic News, January 25, 2005, www.
st3.     "Mice created with human brain cells", Paul Elias, Associated Press, 12/12/2005, www.
st4.     "Stem cell experts seek rabbit-human embryo", Ian Sample, The Guardian, 1/13/2005, www.


wg1.     Historical Atlas of the Twentieth Century, White, Matthew, www.
wg2.     "Genocide Unearthed", Simons, Lewis M., National Geographic, Jan. 2006, PP. 28-35, (www).


rs1.     "Emerging Issues in Palliative Care", Edmund D. Pelligrino, MD, JAMA, May20, 1998, Vol. 279, No. 19, pp.1521-22, (www).
rs2.     Resource Book, Right to Life-Lifespan of Metro Detroit, 2002, (www).
rs3.     "Demographic Bomb-Demography is destiny", also Demographic Winter Video, (www), and (www).
rs4.     "To Be Born"-Warning! Graphic-Parental Discretion-Not for Children, (www), and (www).
rs5.     "Back to the Future", C.Everett Koop, MD, Hippocrates, 3/1993, P.18.
rs6.     "Ethical Dilemmas in the Care of the ILL. What Is the Physician's Service?", Leon R. Kass, M.D., Phd., JAMA. 1980;244(16):1811-1816, (www).
rs7.     "Ethical Dilemmas in the Care of the ILL. What Is the Patient's Good?", Leon R. Kass, M.D., Phd., JAMA. 1980;244(17):1946-1949, (www).
rs8.     “A Hippocratic Oath for the 21st Century”, Ernsting, Kate, The National Catholic Register, July 24-30, 2001, pp. 15-16.
rs9.     “Hippocratic Oath—Modern Version”, Lasagna, Louis, 1964, (www).
rs10.   "Hypocritical Oath", Gene Edward Veith,, 3/9/2002, (www).
rs11.   “The Hippocratic Oath Today: meaningless Relic or invaluable Moral Guide?”, (www).
rs12.   A Short History of Medical Ethics, Albert R. Jonsen, Oxford U. Press, p.17, (www).
rs13.   "Medical Professionalism in the New Millenium: A Physician Charter", Annals of Internal Medicine, 2002; 136:243-246, (www).
rs14.   "Only 1 Medical School uses the classic version of Hippocratic Oath", Kevin B. O'Reilly, American Medical News, 2/20/06, p.9, (www).
rs15.   Funk and Wagnalls New Encyclopedia, Thomas Robert Malthus, 1979, p.478.
rs16.   "Evidence-Based Persuasion-An Ethical Imperative", David Shaw, PhD; Bernice Elger, MD, JAMA. 2013;309(16):1689-1690, (www).
rs17.   Health Care Ethics, Benedict M., Ashley OP, Kevin D. O'Rourke OP, Georgetown University Press, Washington D.C., 1997, (www).
rs18.   Principles of Biomedical Ethics-fourth edition, Tom L. Beauchamp, James F. Childress, Oxford University Press, 1994.
rs19.   Clinical Ethics, Albert R. Jonsen, Mark Siegler, and William J. Winslade, 4th ed., New York: Mcgraw Hill, 1998, p.88.
rs20.   "Brain Work", The Neuroscience Newsletter, Page 1, March-April 2002.
rs21.   Britannica World Language Dictionary, Funk and Wagnalls Company, New York, 1961.
rs22.   "The Rule of Double Effect", Quality of Care with Do Not Resucitate Orders, Daniel P. Sulmasy, MD, PhD, Arch Intern Med, 1999;159:545-50, (www).
rs23.   Culture of Death-The Assault on Medical Ethics in America, Wesley J. Smith, Barnes and Nobles, (www).
rs24.   Forced Exit-The slippery Slope from Assisted Suicide to Legalized Murder, Wesley J. Smith, Spence Publishing Company, 2003, (www).
rs25.   "Life and death: Death is upon us. 'Us' being doctors", Matt Anderson,, (www).
rs26.   "Employer health exams; relevance of Hippocratic oath"-Ethics Forum, Leonard Morse, M.D.; "Why do freshly minted doctors still recite the Hippocratic oath?",, May 1, 2000, (www).
rs27.   "The Rule of Double Effect — A Critique of Its Role in End-of-Life Decision Making", Timothy E. Quill, M.D, Et.Al., N Engl J Med 1997; 337:1768-1771December 11, 1997, (www).
rs28.   "The Rule of Double Effect"-reply to Dr. Quill Et.Al., Thomas A. Preston, M.D., N Engl J Med 1998; 338:1389-1391May 7, 1998, (www).
rs29.   "History of Research Ethics", University of Missouri-Kansas City, (www).
rs30.   "Hippocratic Oath:Classical Version", Ludwig Edelstein, 'The Hippocratic Oath: Text, Translation, and Interpretation", Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1943, (www).
rs31.   "The Declaration of Geneva", adopted by the World Medical Association 1948 (revised 1968), (www).
rs32.   "The Double Effect", Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, (www).
rs33.   "The Catechism of the Catholic Church", Libreria Editrice Vaticana, (www).
rs34.   "Evangelium Vitae", Pope John Paul II-encyclical, (www).
rs35.   "A Catholic Guide to Medical Ethics", Eugene Diamond, M.D., Linacre Institiute, 2001, (www)
rs36.   "Catholic Bioethics and the Gift of Human Life", William E. May, Our Sunday Visitor Publishing Division, 2000(www).
rs37.   "Catholic Healthcare Ethics", Edward J. Furton, Peter Cataldo, and Albert S. Moraczewski, O.P., National Catholic Bioethics Center, 2009, (www).
rs38.   "Humanae Vitae", Pope Paul VI-encyclical, 1968, (www).
rs39.   "Life is a Blessing", Clara Lejeune-Gaymard, Ignatius Press, 2000, (www).
rs40.   "The Bible and Birth Control", Charles D. Provan, Zimmer Printing, 1989, (www-Provan).
rs41.   “Birth Control and Christian Discipleship”, Kippley, John, CCL, May, 2001, (www).
rs42.   "Physician's Desk Reference (PDR)",, (www).